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Full text of "The Church of the atonement and the Chapel of the cross at Chapel Hill, North Carolina"

Henderson, Archibald 

The Church of the Atonement and The 
Chapel of the Cross at Chapel Hill, N. C. 




George Washington Flowers 
Memorial Collection 

DUKE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



ESTABLISHED BY THE 
FAMILY OF 

COLONEL FLOWERS 



STORY AND PAGEANT 



THE 
CHURCH OF THE ATONEMENT 

AND 

THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 

AT 

CHAPEL HILL, NORTH CAROLINA 

by 
ARCHIBALD HENDERSON 



Publication No. 59 - Quarterly - June - August, 1938 
Price: Fifty Cents 

CHURCH MISSIONS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

31-45 Church Street. Hartford, Connecticut 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103 Act of Oct. 3, 
1917. Authorized January 12, 1924. Entered as Second Class Matter, Hartford, Conn. 




WILLIAM RAINEY HOLT 



(See pages 10-12.) 



Story and Pageant Series 



The Church of the Atonement 

and 

The Chapel of the Cross 

at 

Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

By 
ARCHIBALD HENDERSON 



All my fresh springs shall be in thee 



CHURCH MISSIONS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

31-45 Church Street, Hartford, Connecticut 
1938 



Copyright, 1938, by 

THE CHURCH MISSIONS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Hartford, Connecticut 



Printed in the United States of America 
By James A. Reid, Hartford, Connecticut 



Dhr.S 



ADDRESS BY THE RT. REV. EDWIN A. PENICK, D.D., 

Bishop of North Carolina 

Delivered at the laying of the cornerstone of 

the new Chapel of the Cross, 

Chapel Hill, North Carolina, February 20, 1924 

The erection of a church building on the campus of a great 
university is significant in many ways and for many people. 

First it is replete with intimate and tender meaning for the 
donor in a way that no one else can understand. Here rises a 
monument in granite to symbolize the enduring affection of one 
human heart for another, and to perpetuate the blessed memory 
of loved ones who have ''died in the Lord." What could be more 
befitting than that the noble impulses of faith and love should 
seek to find embodiment in a temple, built for the worship of 
One in whom "the whole family in Heaven and earth is named" 
and whose triumphant Son revealed that it is not death to die 
but, for the faithful, life eternal and more abundant? 

For the parishioners of the Chapel of the Cross this service, 
I venture to believe, is an occasion of gratitude. For they see in 
this new structure not only the outward sign of growth and 
progress, but the expansion of their facilities for spiritual minis- 
tration to the life of the University. The happy design of the 
architect in incorporating the beautiful and hallowed old church 
building with the new in harmonious grouping typifies the desire 
of this congregation that in laying the cornerstone for future 
service, nothing whatever shall be lost from the honored tradi- 
tions of the past. The Chapel of the Cross shall soon be "bring- 
ing forth out of its treasury things both new and old." 

I think of the students who will worship here. For them 
this structure is more like home than any building on the campus. 
Here they will share in the precious things of family life. Here 
they will feel the invisible presence of loved ones, especially in 
the mystical fellowship of the Holy Communion. Here they will 
join in the refrain of favorite hymns or lift their hearts in prayer 

5 



6 STORY AND PAGEANT 

on the rich cadences of a scriptural liturgy. Under the roof that 
will shelter this spot they will hear echoes of boyhood and girl- 
hood days when the voices of parents and children mingled in 
family devotion around the fireside altar. We stand on the spot 
where students will make their life decisions and dedicate them- 
selves to idealistic service. Already, in anticipation of the crises 
of youth that this new church will look upon, we feel that we 
stand on holy ground. 

Members of the University faculty will worship here. I 
doubt if any more earnest prayers will ascend in this house than 
those which rise from the hearts of these keenly sensitive, intel- 
ligent, responsible men. A sense of dependence upon God is 
characteristic of true leadership. Self-sufficiency belongs to 
shallow souls. The burden of a commission to mould the future 
of impressionable youth is heavy enough to crush any superficial 
mind that dares to teach without dependence upon that wisdom 
of which the fear of God is just the beginning. Scientists, his- 
torians and philosophers will kneel in humility here like the wise 
men of old who fell down and worshipped the infant Christ. 

Finally, the Word of God will be preached in this place. 
And I pray that this Word may always be "rightly divided." 
Let it be proclaimed to every generation of students that Scrip- 
ture speaks with the authority of Truth, and that the Church, 
her divinely commissioned interpreter, welcomes reverent in- 
vestigation of her teachings from any source. Let it be said to 
self-conscious, inquiring dispositions that in the family of God 
mental and temperamental differences are tolerantly and sympa- 
thetically allowed. May the pulpit of this Church shout in the 
ears of thinking men and women that Truth can never be ar- 
rayed against Truth any more than a God of Holiness can contra- 
dict his own character. There is no real enmity between true 
science with its characteristic humility and the Christian Church 
with her unpretentious open mindedness. They walk together 
hand in hand in the joyous arduous search for Truth. I say 
again and again that here no essential antagonism is so much as 
known. Friendly, therefore, towards her neighboring lecture 
halls, eager to seize upon material discovery and to show its har- 
mony with spiritual truth, quick to sympathize with honest 
doubt and slow, exceeding slow, to denounce or condemn, stand- 
ing as a witness on this campus to the supernatural background 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 7 

and foreground of all life, testifying to the presence of God in 
creation, in history and in the hearts of men today, and certifying 
to all the neighborly duties involved in man's relationship to God 
— upon this "law of liberty," which is the spirit of Christ, as 
upon a cornerstone may this church be built. 



A MEMORIAL TO 
WILLIAM RAINEY HOLT 

The new Chapel of the Cross is a memorial, dedicated by 
William Allen Erwin, to his maternal grandfather, Dr. William 
Rainey Holt. Dr. Holt (October 30, 1798 - October 3, 1868), 
after a long life of seventy years, left behind him the memory of 
a distinguished and high-minded character. As an agricultur- 
ist, he was a leader, succeeding Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin, the 
first president of the North Carolina Agricultural Society, and 
holding that office until his death. In his own plantation, he 
furnished a striking object in practical farming of the best type. 
North Carolina, then a backward state, owes much to the intelli- 
gent and vigorous propaganda in behalf of efficient farming con- 
ducted for many years by Dr. Holt. In active co-operation with 
Governor Morehead, Dr. Holt did much to lay broad and deep 
the industrial and economic foundations of North Carolina. 

It is eminently fitting that this church should be founded 
here as a memorial to Dr. Holt, who was graduated from the 
University of North Carolina in the class of 1817. Throughout 
his life, Dr. Holt was a deep student of literature in the broadest 
sense, a cultured scholar, and the owner of an extensive library, 
to which he was constantly adding. It is an interesting circum- 
stance that William Mercer Green and William Rainey Holt, 
graduates of the University of North Carolina of the classes of 
1818 and 1817 respectively, were present at the Church Conven- 
tion in Salisbury, when the first Bishop of North Carolina was 
chosen. It was through the efforts of Green, supported by Holt, 
that the happy selection of the Rev. Mr. Ravenscroft as Bishop 
was made by the Convention. 

Dr. Holt was a devout Churchman, a constant attendant 
upon church services. One of his great pleasures was to sing in 
the choir with his loving and accomplished daughter, Julia. Dr. 
Holt was a true lover of his kind. As a physician, he performed 
humanitarian service of a high order. As a citizen, he con- 
tributed substantially to the upbuilding of community and com- 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 9 

monwealth. As a man, he lived a noble life of consecrated 
Christian service. 

In response to my request for the underlying reasons for 
erecting this memorial, Mr. Erwin stated that he wished to build 
a noble church foundation at the University, the strategic center 
of Church work in the state, for the prime purpose of affording 
the youth of North Carolina "better opportunity to hear the 
word of God 'truly preached,' and the beautiful services of our 
church enjoyed with the hope that these services would be so 
charmingly rendered and the church's doctrines so well and 
faithfully preached by strong and sane ministers, as to establish 
in the minds and hearts of many worshipping in this church the 
true faith 'once delivered to the saints'." 



WILLIAM ALLEN ERWIN 

The new Chapel of the Cross, a beautiful memorial to 
William Rainey Holt and a contribution of incalculable value to 
the cause of religion, is the gift of William Allen Erwin. No ex- 
tended sketch of the life of this captain of industry and noble- 
minded philanthropist will be attempted here. * To his mother, 
Elvira J. Holt, daughter of William R. Holt, he ascribes his chief 
obligation for lofty ideas, aspirations and ambitions. 

In matters of large public welfare, Mr. Erwin has been 
zealous, active and devoted. During Governor Glenn's ad- 
ministration he was a member of the hospital commission con- 
sisting of five men appointed to use funds appropriated by the 
legislature to enlarge and improve state hospitals for the insane. 
Declining the chairmanship of the commission, he served ener- 
getically as chairman of the building committee. One of the 
buildings at Raleigh, named by the hospital authorities in his 
honor, was erected at his suggestion to care for only mild cases 
of insanity. The isolation of the mild cases has resulted in a 
great increase in the percentage of cures. At his suggestion, 
also, nurses' buildings were erected at both Raleigh and Morgan- 
ton, these buildings providing sanctuaries of rest and relief for 
nurses when off duty. 

During the World War, Mr. Erwin was active in all good 
works. He was food administrator for his district, consisting of 
seven counties; chairman of the Council of Defense for Durham; 
and chairman of the United War Work drive for seven counties. 
Three of the four Erwin Company Mills, offered by him to the 
government, were commandeered. These mills made denims 
for soldiers' overalls, olive drab cloth for uniforms, and sheets and 
pillow cases for the emergency fleet. All mill operatives were 
cheerfully released on call to the colors. Mr. Erwin performed 
valiant service in the organization and support of the various war 
drives among the employes of the Erwin Company. 



*An authoritative account of his life and career, by W. S. Pearson, is 
found in the Biographical History of North Carolina (Greensboro, N. C, 1906), 
III, 114-121. For helpful information concerning Mr. Erwin's life since 1906, 
the date of that publication, I am indebted to Mr. Kemp P. Lewis, Durham, 
N. C. 

10 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 11 

As captain of industry and leader in the textile industry in 
this section, Mr. Erwin enjoys an enviable reputation. The 
range of this work is indicated by the fact that he now has in 
charge twelve cotton mills with about 290,000 spindles and 7,450 
looms. As an employer of labor, he has displayed the most 
humanitarian principles. He was one of the first textile em- 
ployers to reduce the hours of work and to forbid the employment 
in his mills of children under twelve years of age. In his mills, 
no dissolute person is employed or permitted to live in the mill 
community. Mr. Erwin has striven successfully to maintain a 
high atmosphere in his mill communities, and has actively inter- 
ested himself in the education of the operatives. The mill vil- 
lages, under his fostering care, are pleasant places in which to 
live, enjoying modern conveniences, playgrounds, good schools 
and good churches. 

In church affairs, Mr. Erwin has performed service of the 
highest value, marked by large financial generosity and active 
personal work. On October 23, 1889, Mr. Erwin was married to 
Miss Sadie L. Smedes, the youngest daughter of the late Aldert 
Smedes, D.D., the founder of St. Mary's School, Raleigh. For 
many years, Mr. Erwin has actively aided in the support of St. 
Mary's School. He was chairman of the committee which pur- 
chased the present school property from the Cameron estate. 
Ever since he removed to West Durham in 1873 he has been 
superintendent of a flourishing Sunday School. The Men's 
Bible Class, which he conducts, has an average attendance of 
over one hundred. 

As a philanthropist, Mr. Erwin has been a regular and gener- 
ous contributor to church work of various sorts, of both local and 
state-wide influence. A notable feature of the gift of the Chapel 
of the Cross was the liberal endowment for aid in its support and 
maintenance. In 1926 Mr. Erwin established the trust fund to 
care for the Chapel of the Cross. By the deed of trust, the first 
use to be made of this fund is to keep the church fully insured; 
and the remainder is to be used for general maintenance, subject 
to the approval of the Bishop. He has given liberally to the 
support of St. Philip's Episcopal Parish, Durham. In addition 
to the beautiful Chapel of the Cross here, he individually built 
and gave to the diocese the pleasing St. Joseph's Chapel, built 
of stone, at West Durham; and provided funds for the erection 



12 STORY AND PAGEANT 

of a suitable Parish House. The church and parish house at 
Erwin were also the gifts of Mr. Erwin. He has established 
trust funds, the income from which is to be used for the support 
of the Episcopal churches at West Durham, Erwin and Coolee- 
mee; and made generous donations toward the erection of a 
church building at Erwin and Cooleemee. Mr. and Mrs. Erwin 
jointly have established a baby ward at St. Peter's Hospital, 
Charlotte, in memory of their grandson, Hamilton C. Jones ; and 
have made geneious gifts to the Thompson Orphanage. Mr. 
Erwin was successful in the campaigns, both of which he headed 
as chairman, for the Clergymen's Retiring Fund and the first 
Nation Wide Campaign in his diocese. 

A man of virile force and strong intellect, Mr. Erwin has 
lived a life of splendid material accomplishment. He has suc- 
cessfully overcome the many obstacles which from time to time 
have confronted him, buoyed up by a strong sense of faith in 
work and confidence in the future. More conspicuous than these 
traits and accomplishments are his benevolent and philanthropic 
spirit, his will to good deeds. In a private letter, he once thus 
opened his heart to a friend: "I have striven not to become rich, 
but have centered my whole heart and soul in the desire and am- 
bition to make a man after the type of my father in character, 
and with it to maintain his name and honor, and to establish for 
myself all the success in a business way that faithful, earnest and 
persistent efforts may bring."* 



*Since this sketch was completed in 1925. William Allen Erwin has passed 
from this life, in Durham, North Carolina, on February 28, 1932. 



A HISTORY OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
IN CHAPEL HILL 

By 

Archibald Henderson 

Historian of the Chapel of the Cross and for 

many years a member of the Vestry 

In 1878, the late Dr. Kemp Plummer Battle, President of 
the University of North Carolina and head of the history de- 
partment, was Junior Warden of the Parish. On his own ini- 
tiative, he prepared a brief historical sketch of the Episcopal 
Church in Chapel Hill, which was recorded in the Parish 
Register. On January 30, 1913, Dr. Battle was requested by the 
vestry to prepare as complete a history of the Parish as he might 
be able. In fulfilment of that request, Dr. Battle made notes, 
gathered materials, and prepared a somewhat more extended 
account than the brief sketch of thirty-five years earlier. On 
May 20, 1921, Archibald Henderson, who first became a member 
of the Parish in 1894 and had long served, respectively, as vestry- 
man, Secretary-Treasurer and Treasurer, was elected by the 
vestry Parish Historian. Several years later he was requested to 
deliver the historical address at the consecration of the new 
Chapel of the Cross, on May 14, 1925. He has collected to- 
gether and made exhaustive researches in the Church archives, 
gathered materials from various sources, and corresponded with 
former Rectors of the Chapel of the Cross. The present mono- 
graph, completed in the autumn of 1925, represents the fulfil- 
ment of the request, by the vestry, to prepare a history of the 
Episcopal Church in Chapel Hill. 

In his classic description of Chapel Hill and environs, the 
famous William Richardson Davie, the "Father of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina," uses these words: 

The seat of the University is on the summit of a 
very high ridge. There is a very gentle declivity of three 

13 



14 STORY AND PAGEANT 

hundred yards to the village, which is situated in a handsome 
plain, considerably lower than the site of the public build- 
ings, but so greatly elevated above the surrounding country 
as to furnish an extensive landscape, composed of the vicini- 
ty of Eno, Flat anid Little Rivers. 

The ridge appears to begin about half a mile di- 
rectly east of the building, where it arises abruptly several 
hundred feet. This peak is called Point Prospect. The flat 
country spreads out below like the ocean, giving an immense 
hemisphere in which the eye seems lost in the extent of space. 

There is nothing more remarkable in this extraordinary 
place than the abundance of springs of the purest and finest 
water, which burst from the side of the ridge, and which have 
been the subject of admiration both to hunters and travelers 
ever since the discovery of this part of the country. * 

It is of one of these springs that the present monograph treats 
■ — the well-spring of religion and humanity, the Episcopal faith 
in Chapel Hill and at the University of North Carolina, pure and 
undefiled. 

In the neighborhood of one of these springs of "the purest 
and finest water," of which Davie spoke, a spring known in my 
own time as "the Chapel Spring," there stood before the Ameri- 
can Revolution a Chapel of Ease connected with the Church of 
England, in St. Matthew's Parish, Orange County, f This small 
structure, conspicuous in a tiny settlement, stood at the inter- 
section of two main arteries of travel and trade. One was the 
road which ran from Petersburg by Oxford on to Pittsboro and 
beyond — passing to the south of the "President's lot" in the 
present Chapel Hill, through the campus between the Old West 
Building and Person Hall, and across the Peabody Building lot. 
The other was the road from New Berne which ran by Wake 
Court House, afterwards Raleigh, and on to Guilford Court 
House — passing in present Chapel Hill through the southern 



*Cited by Dr. Kemp P. Battle in his Historv of the University of North 
Carolina (Raleigh, N. C, 1907), I, 26. 

fin her First Steps in North Carolina History (Raleigh, N. C, 1889), p. 
92, Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, speaking of the early days of the Revolu- 
tion, says: "In that part of Orange County where now are the pretty village 
of Chapel Hill and the University of the State, there was then only a small 
chapel of the Episcopal Church by the side of the road leading from Peters- 
burg, Virginia, to Pittsboro in Chatham County." 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 15 

part of the campus in the rear of the South Building. The Chapel 
of Ease, which stood near the site of the present Carolina Inn, 
was entitled New Hope Chapel; and the eminence on which it 
was located was called New Hope Chapel Hill. As late as No- 
vember, 1792, the place was called New Hope Chapel Hill, al- 
though usually abbreviated to Chapel Hill*. In 1793, when the 
village was laid out and lots were sold, the village took the name 
of Chapel Hill. In speaking of New Hope Chapel, the late Dr. 
Kemp P. Battle observes: "It is interesting to note that the word 
Hope in South Scotland means Haven; and most of the settlers 
in the neighborhood were Scotch-Irish. Less than a century ago 
remains of the rough little edifice were still to be seen at a spot in 
the garden of the Graves place, according to the wife of the Rev. 
James Phillips, who became a professor in the University in 
1826." f 

To those mystically inclined, significance may lurk in this 
giving, by a little Christian chapel, of the name to the seat of a 
great Christian university. 

Among the zealous missionaries of the Church of England, 
who carried the gospel of service and prayer to remote settle- 
ments, in the early days, was the Rev. George Micklejohn, born 
about the year 1717. In the parish records of Emmanuel Church, 
Warrenton, there is an entry in the handwriting of the Rev. 
Cameron F. MacRae, stating that this Rev. George Micklejohn 
was born at Berwick- on-Tweed; that he was a graduate of the 
University of Cambridge; that he had served as Chaplain under 
Frederick the Great ; and that he was with the Duke of Cumber- 
land at the Battle of Culloden. 

This is mentioned by Bishop Cheshire, who had seen 
the entry, in an historical address delivered at Hillsborough 
on the one hundredth anniversary of Saint Matthew's parish, 
August 24, 1924. In this address printed by order of the vestry, 



*Compare extracts from the report of the commissioners to choose the site 
of the University of North Carolina, as given in Battle's History of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, I, 22-23. The village is called, in the report, New 
Hope Chapel Hill, November 5, 1792; and also Chapel Hill, November 6, 1792. 

-(-Historical Notes, in archives, Chapel of the Cross. From the Chapel 
Spring, near the Chapel of Ease, "flows the stream which winds its way- 
through picturesque scenery, by the Meeting of the Waters, to Morgan's 
Creek at Scot's Hole on the Mason plantation, bequeathed by Mrs. Mary E. 
Mason to the University." 



16 STORY AND PAGEANT 

to which I am indebted, are recited many other curious incidents 
concerning the eccentric Dr. Micklejohn. 

Parson Micklejohn, as he was generally called, was licensed 
by the Bishop of London on March 12, 1766, for missionary work 
in North Carolina ; and some months after his arrival (about July 
1) in the province he was appointed by Governor William Tryon 
to St. Matthew's Parish, Orange County. Orange County was 
constituted St. Matthew's Parish in 1752, when the Assembly 
erected Orange County out of portions of the counties of Gran- 
ville, Johnston and Bladen. This act was disallowed and re- 
pealed by royal proclamation; but four years later a new act 
reconstituted both county and parish*. 

From headquarters at Hillsborough, a small but important 
town because in it were held the courts for some seven or eight 
counties, Parson Micklejohn made numerous journeys to outly- 
ing settlements, holding services, preaching and baptizing. Al- 
though a man of curious eccentricities, he exerted wide influence 
in North Carolina. During the Regulator troubles in 1768, 
Governor Tryon requested that, on Sunday, September 25, the 
Rev. Henry Pattillo, the Presbyterian pastor of Hawfields, Eno, 
and Little River, and the Rev. George Micklejohn, rector in St. 
Matthew's Parish, Orange County, preach to the troops as- 
sembled at Hillsborough. The former preached to the Mecklen- 
burg and Rowan Brigade; the latter to the Granville and Orange 
Brigade. In the Orders for the Day, September 26, both 
preachers were thanked for their sermons, t 

Mr. Micklejohn preached from the text, Rom. XIII, 1-2: 
"Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there 
is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. 
"Whoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordi- 
nance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves 
damnation." 

Parson Micklejohn, through Governor Tryon, presented one 



^Consult North Carolina State Records XXIII, 343, 383, 390-1, 446-7, 
470'1: Frank Nash: Hillsborough, Colonial and Revolutionary (Raleigh, N. C, 
1903) ; also his History of Orange County, in North Carolina Booklet X, 2. 

f A printed copy of Dr. Micklejohn's sermon is preserved in the North 
Carolina State Archives. Cf. N. C. COL. REC, VII, 939, 976, 983; North 
Carolina Booklet, VIII, 57-78. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 17 

hundred printed copies of this sermon to the representatives in the 
N. C. House. In transmitting the sermon to the House of 
Assembly, Governor Tryon said: "The merit and beneficial 
tendency of this admirable discourse, gave general satisfaction to 
all who heard it delivered; a testimony it will undoubtedly re- 
ceive from every one who reads with attention." The Assembly 
resolved "that the Expence of printing the said Sermon be paid 
by the Public." 

After the Battle of Alamance in 1771, Parson Micklejohn, 
although still a stout supporter of "the powers that be," nobly 
aided one of his parishioners. Thomas Person, afterwards a 
general in the Revolution, for whom a county was subsequently 
named, according to reliable tradition was arrested near the 
battlefield of Alamance and thrown into prison. Parson Mickle- 
john came to the rescue of Person who was a Churchman; inter- 
ceded on his behalf; and, on promising to be responsible for his 
safe-keeping, succeeded in getting him out of jail and taking him 
to his own home. Person was an active sympathizer with the 
Regulators; and Tryon, it was said, planned to send troops to 
Person's home, "Goshen", and seek incriminating evidence 
among Person's private papers. "Why, sir," said Person to 
Micklejohn, who had learned of Tryon's purpose, "there is 
enough evidence against me among my papers to hang me a 
dozen times." Person borrowed Micklejohn's fine blooded Eng- 
lish mare, and secretly rode to "Goshen" and back, some sixty 
miles, that night, without his absence being suspected. He con- 
cealed the incriminating papers in the "pud-lock" holes of a 
brick-kiln; and they were not found by Tryon's soldiers, who 
visited "Goshen" and broke open Person's desk. The danger in 
which Person found himself may be realized from the fact that, 
although the incriminating papers were never found, Person was 
regarded as a dangerous agitator; and after the Regulation was 
put down he was excepted from the general amnesty. * 

Parson Micklejohn is said to have "dodged the truth" on 
this occasion. He was asked if Thomas Person had not left his 



*Sketch of the Life and Public Services of General Thomas Person. By 
Theodore Brvant Kingsbury. The Weekly Star (Wilmington, N. C), July 
20. 1877. 



18 STORY AND PAGEANT 

prison bounds the night before. The Parson replied, "I supped 
and breakfasted with him"!* 

General Person, an early benefactor of the University of 
North Carolina, after whom Person Hall is named, always cher- 
ished the deepest gratitude toward Parson Micklejohn, and gave 
him a home on his own plantation, which latter still bears the 
name "Goshen." 

"The next interesting mention of the Hillsboro Parson," says 
Bishop Cheshire, "is at the opening of the Revolutionary Congress 

of 1775, of which the Rev. Henry Pattillo was a member 

August 20th, we read in its record: 'Resolved that Colonel Fran- 
cis Nash wait on the Rev. George Micklejohn and request him 
to attend and to perform divine service; pursuant to which he 
attended (and) opened the Congress by reading prayers in the 
Church at Hillsboro."! 

"The Halifax Congress in April, 1776, passed sentence on 
George Micklejohn, one of the Tories and Regulators captured 
at Moore's Creek. He was paroled for the rest of the war, pro- 
vided he remained 'in Perquimans in that part of said County on 
the south side of the river, with leave of 14 days to prepare 
himself.' This action was taken by the Halifax Congress only 
in the case of persons whose character and importance made it 
probable that they would exert an influence in their own com- 
munities adverse to the cause of the Revolution." J 

In a brief manuscript history of the Chapel of the Cross, Dr. 
Battle says: "The missionary of the Church of England who had 
charge of this station (New Hope Chapel) was the Rev. George 
Micklejohn, D.D., an eccentric man of probity and many vir- 
tues, personally so popular that the Revolutionary leaders of 
North Carolina were afraid of his influence over the people of 
Orange and forced him to remove his residence to a county in the 
Albemarle country." The exact degree held by Micklejohn was 



*Josiah Turner in The Raleigh Sentinel, 1877. 

fThe last Resolution of the first day's session of this Congress was: 
"That the Rev. Henry Patillo be requested to read prayers to the Congress 
every morning and the Rev. Charles Edward Taylor every evening during his 
stay." The Rev. Charles Edward Taylor was Rector of St. George's Parish, 
Northampton County. N. C. COL. REC, X, 169. 

^Centennial Celebration, Saint Matthew's Church, Hillsboro, N. C. T 
August 24, 1924. 




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(See pages 8, 9.) 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 21 

Doctor of Sacred Theology, as printed on the title-page of the 
sermon he preached at Hillsborough, September 25, 1768. The 
degrees D.D. and S.T.D. are virtually equivalent. 

There is an interesting sequel to the above story. Bishop 
Cheshire surmises regarding Micklejohn that "as many of the Reg- 
ulators were his Orange County parishioners, and the Highlanders 
of Cumberland County were accompanied by many of the Orange 
County Regulators, their Clergyman, being a zealous loyalist, 
had gone with his loyal parishioners, and so was among those 
captured after the disastrous defeat of Moore's Creek." Doubt- 
less Parson Micklejohn's strong Scotch sentiments led him to 
attach himself to the Scotch Highlanders who constituted the 
bulk of the loyalist army at Moore's Creek. The legislative act, 
paroling Micklejohn and ordering him to remove to Perquimans, 
gave him two weeks to prepare for removal; but when two 
months and more had elapsed, during which Micklejohn made 
no move to obey the legislative order, the Council of Safety, at 
Wilmington, on July 15, 1776, resolved that "the said George 
Micklejohn be immediately removed into the said (Perquimans) 
County at his own Expence," and that "the Commanding Officer 
of the second Regiment of the County of Orange see this resolve 
carried into effect."* 

It thus required an act of the Provincial Congress, a resolve 
of the Council of State, and the aid of the Orange County militia 
to compel this obstinate clergyman to remove to Perquimans. 
Finally, he petitioned the next Provincial Congress, which met 
at Halifax, November 12, 1776, to hear him in person; and this 
petition was granted the following day. Ten days later he ap- 
peared before the Congress; and after "being examined, repeated 
and subscribed an Oath to the State, wherefore he was dis- 
charged."! From this time forward, his loyalty no longer being 
in question, Dr. Micklejohn held a position of importance in the 
communities where he resided. As an instance of this, he was 
appointed, along with the Rev. Henry Pattillo, a trustee of 
Granville Academy when it was chartered in 1779. Another 
trustee was General Thomas Person, a member of the Provincial 



*N. C. COL. REC, X, 646. 
fN. C. COL. REC, X, 917, 932. 



22 STORY AND PA.GEANT 

Congress before whom Micklejohn subscribed the oath of allegi- 
ance to the "State of North Carolina."* 

There is no documentary record extant of Parson Mickle- 
john's labors at New Hope Chapel; but he periodically preached 
there, and baptized many people in the vicinity. Bishop William 
Mercer Green, long a resident of Chapel Hill and familiar with 
the history of the Church in this region, stated in 1882 that St. 
Jude's was in the Hawfields; and that it was "one of the ante- 
Revolutionary mission posts at which Rev. Mr. Micklejohn used 
to preach in conjunction with others, at Hillsboro, St. Mary's, 
Chapel Hill, Williamsboro, etc." An old farmer on one occasion 
recalled that Mr. Paul Cameron and he received from Parson 
Micklejohn the same Christian rite, drily adding (possibly be- 
cause Mr. Cameron had acquired great wealth for those times — 
or because the farmer thought Mr. Cameron was the better 
Christian): "It tuck on Paul, but never done me no good." 

On another occasion, according to Dr. Kemp P. Battle, 
Parson Micklejohn met a countryman, and in the course of a 
friendly chat, asked: "Why don't you come to hear me preach?" 
"Well, sir," replied the countryman, "to tell you the truth I have 
to work so hard all week I want to stay at home or bunt rabbits 
or fish a little on Sunday." "You ought to come to church," 
urged the Parson. "I'll give you a drink if you'll come to- 
morrow," to which the countryman eagerly assented. Where- 
upon the hearty old Scotch parson, himself habituated to heady 
beverages, produced a flask from his saddle bag and poured out 
for the countryman a generous dose of whiskey — thereby add- 
ing one to his meagre congregation with this ready exercise of 
spiritual influence. 

According to reliable tradition, Parson Micklejohn would 
accept but one fee for marriage or other services, a gold doubloon 
(about $8.00) exactly fitting the money belt which he wore around 
his waist beneath his clothes. Presumably before emigrating 
from Scotland to this country, the Parson's wife had left him; 
and ever afterwards he had an ineradicable distrust of women. 
On one occasion when he was living at Goshen, he entrusted his 
money belt to his friend, John Norwood, to keep for him against 
his return. When the Parson called for it, Mr. Norwood asked 



*N. C. STATE RECORDS, XXIV, 297. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 23 

his wife to produce it. The Parson was wild with consternation 
and alarm. "What!" he exclaimed in horror. "Entrust my 
money belt to a woman!" His serenity was restored only after 
the belt was once more in his hands and he had verified the con- 
tents. Then, leaping to his feet, he seized Mrs. Norwood's hand 
and shouted: "Gie us your band, woman, gie us your hand! 
You're an honest woman, you're an honest woman!" It is said 
that he never again entrusted the belt to the keeping of Mr. 
Norwood. * 

Although a small man physically, Parson Micklejohn was 
strong, active and vigorous. Constantly on the road, he kept up 
his missionary ministrations until well along in the first decade 
of the nineteenth century. As indicative of his great prominence, 
he was elected president of the first Diocesan Convention held in 
North Carolina, in November, 1790. His name was even sug- 
gested for the first president of the University of North Carolina. 
The last few years of his life he spent in St. James's Parish, 
Mecklenburg County, Virginia; and died there at the age of 
more than one hundred years, in 1818. f 

The parent church in Hillsborough was probably built some- 
time between 1756 and 1767 — according to one authority "about 
ten years before the Revolution." It was a framed wooden 
structure, of considerable size, probably with galleries around 
three sides, and capable of seating several hundred persons. 
The Revolutionary Congress which assembled in Hillsborough 
on August 20, 1775, held its sessions in this church; and James 
Iredell speaks of the building as a "remarkably handsome 
church." The famous State Convention of the summer of 1788, 
which declined to ratify the Federal Constitution, also held its 
meetings in this building. It stood on the northwest corner of 
Churton and Try on Streets, where the Library now stands. 
The Church yard of St. Matthew's was the common burying 



*John Norwood lived six miles from Louisburg, present Franklin County, 
on the Halifax Road. He was Lay Reader in his local church, and served as 
the Secretary of the abortive Diocesan Convention of the Episcopal Church 
at Tarborough in November, 1790, of which Dr. Micklejohn was president. 
John Norwood's wife was Leah Lenoir, sister of General William Lenoir of 
Revolutionary fame. 

fin a list of the Clergy of Virginia in 1817, his name occurs: "George 
Micklejohn, Mecklenburg County, age 100." 



24 STORY AND PAGEANT 

ground of the community. The title to the grounds, it appears, 
had been vested in the trustees of the town from the year 1759. * 

After the departure of Parson Micklejohn, apparently about 
the beginning of 1776, there was no clergyman in the parish for 
many years. The church building was used for various pur- 
poses, both religious, and secular, such as for the great State 
assemblies, already mentioned, and also, it is said, for a school 
house. By 1784 it was "far gone in decay," but was repaired and 
made into a school and free meeting house, with the preference 
given to Episcopal ministers. The building burned down toward 
the close of the century, and some twenty years later (about 
1816) funds were raised by popular subscription, including a 
lottery, for the erection of another structure for use as a church 
building. The first minister to organize a congregation and use 
the new building as a church was the Rev. John Witherspoon. 
Even before the death of William Hooper, the town purchased 
from him a strip of land, lying along the west line of the original 
churchyard, where many Hillsboro people now lie buried. The 
site of St. Matthew's remained vacant until 1839 when the town 
leased it to the Presbyterian Church for a Sunday school room, 
with a clause in the lease making the building revert to the town 
if it should cease to be used for the purpose intended. The 
present Presbyterian church is not located on the site of old St. 
Matthew's, being fully one hundred feet west of that site and 
fronting west on the west line of the old Churchyard, f 

A very different account is given by Bishop Cheshire, who 
believes that the church and church-yard became the property 
of the Episcopal Church after the Revolution, under one of the 
ordinances of the Halifax Congress of 1776 which had secured to 
the Episcopal Church all Churches, Church-yards, Glebes, 
Church plate, and other property in possession of the Church at 
the outbreak of the Revolution. The second church, which 
afterwards came to be known as the "Presbyterian Church," due 
to the organization of a Presbyterian congregation and the use 



*According to a statement of the late Frank Nash, historian of Hills- 
borough and of Orange County. 

fThis is the account given by the late Frank Nash. See North Carolina 
State Records, XXIV, 250-1, 605-7, for the text of the act incorporating the 
Hillsborough Academy known as "Science Hall," in January, 1779, and the 
amendatory act of 1784. "Science Hall" was housed in the old St. Matthew's 
Church. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 25 

of the church for regular services, clearly does not come under the 
ordinance mentioned, as it was not erected until 1816. Nor was 
the church-yard, it appears, ever regarded as other than a com- 
munity burying ground. 

In 1823, Judge Thomas Ruffin and other vestrymen con- 
sidered claiming the old Church on the strength of the Ordinance 
of 1776, having no doubt as to their legal rights to do so. Fear- 
ing, however, that this step might offend their Presbyterian 
brethren, who had used the Church so long, Judge Ruffin gave 
the land for the new church-yard. 

On August 23, 1824, the present St. Matthew's Parish was 
organized, by the following persons: Eliza Estes, Mary P. Ashe, 
Elizabeth Ashe, Mary R. Anderson, Sally Grove, William Norwood, 
Ann Ruffin, P. R. Anderson, Ann O. Cameron, Thomas Ruffin, 
Josiah Turner, Stephen Moore, William Cain, Jr., William Barry 
Grove, Robina Norwood, Benjamin B. Blume, Francis L. Hawks, 
Elizabeth Norwood, Walker Anderson, Emily Hawks, J. Latta, 
Thomas Carney, W. E. Anderson, Thomas J. Faddis, Elizabeth 
Latta (mother), Mary Latta, Jonathan Sneed, Elizabeth Latta 
(daughter), Ellen Latta, N. Hoston, Catherine Hoston. The 
present church was erected on property given by Chief Justice 
Thomas Ruffin. At the Diocesan Convention in 1825, St. 
Matthew's, Hillsborough, was admitted; and Mr. W. M. Green 
reported that "a congregation has been formed, and a neat and 
commodious house of worship commenced, which will be com- 
pleted during the ensuing summer." 

For long after the Revolution, the Episcopal Church lan- 
guished and waned in North Carolina. Naturally enough, the 
Church of England, the state church of Great Britain, suffered an 
almost total eclipse in North Carolina as the result of the Revo- 
lution. But the prevailing opinion has been that the priests of 
the Church in North Carolina were loyal, almost to a man, to the 
mother country during the Revolution. The records, on the 
contrary, speak eloquently of the loyalty of the North Carolina 
clergy to the American cause. Of the eleven clergymen in North 
Carolina, Francis Johnston (Bertie), George Micklejohn (Orange), 
James Reed (Newbern), and John Wills (New Hanover) were 
Tories; but as already mentioned, Micklejohn subscribed the 
oath of allegiance to North Carolina in 1776. Reed was mild in 
his royalist sympathies; and Daniel Earl (Edenton) opposed the 



26 STORY AND PAGEANT 

closing of the port of Boston, but never broke with the mother 
country. Nathaniel Blount (Bath), Thomas Burgess (Halifax 
County), Charles Cupples (Bute County), Hezekiah Ford (Surry 
County), Charles Pettigrew (Chowan County), and Charles 
Edward Taylor (Northampton County) were all patriots. * 

Patriotism, expressing itself as religious intolerance, took 
the form of persecution of the Episcopal Church, then a part of 
the Church of England. "The effect, indeed, of these prejudices," 
says William Mercer Green, "seems to have been more remark- 
able in North Carolina than any where else. The cry of 'Down 
with it, down with it even to the ground', accomplished the 
wishes of the enemies of the Church, and long after Zion had 
arisen from the dust, and put on her beautiful garments, in other 
portions of her borders, her children here had still to weep when 
they remembered her."f 

At one time, it is said, there was not a single minister of the 
Episcopal Church in North Carolina. The organization of St. 
Matthew's Parish has been dwelt upon at length, because of its 
influence upon the development of the Episcopal Church in 
Orange County. The organization of St. Matthew's Church, 
Hillsborough, on August 23, 1824, with the Rev. William Mercer 
Green as first rector, marks the renascence of the Episcopal 
Church in Orange County. 

In connection with the history of the Episcopal Church in 
Orange County, it should not be forgotten that the transforma- 
tion of the site of New Hope Chapel into the seat of the State 
University was chiefly the work of a Scotch Episcopalian, a de- 
vout Churchman, James Hogg. He was one of the commissioners 
to locate the University, within a circle of fifteen miles radius 
having its centre at Cyprett's, afterwards Prince's, Bridge over 
New Hope Creek in Chatham County. Through his vigorous 
efforts, ten landowners deeded in coterminous tracts eight 
hundred acres with some three hundred acres a few miles off on 
condition that the University be located within this area. 

The first Episcopalian to settle in Chapel Hill was Helen, 



*For the data cited here and other valuable information I am indebted 
to the Rev. Alfred S. Lawrence, who is preparing a history of the Church in 
North Carolina during the Colonial and Post'Revolutionary periods of our 

history. 

f A Memoir, preceding The Works oj the Right Reverend John Stark Ravens- 
croft, D.D., (New York, Protestant Episcopal Press, 1830,) I, 34. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 27 

the daughter of James Hogg, and the widow of William Hooper, 
son of the signer of the Declaration of Independence. Although 
the faculty in the early days of the University were almost all of 
Presbyterian affiliation, and the widow Hooper was married, the 
second time, to President Joseph Caldwell, himself a Presbyterian, 
she brought up her three sons to be members of the Episcopal 
Church. Her son, William Hooper, long a professor in the Uni- 
versity, became a minister of the Episcopal Church; but some 
time later he informed Bishop Ravenscroft that the Bishop's 
rigid views on the subject of Apostolic Succession were repugnant 
to him, as he looked upon "all other denominations as branches 
of Christ's Church equally with Episcopalians." In consequence 
of his avowed determination, on leaving the Episcopal ministry, 
to offer himself as an independent minister to his congregation, 
which, if successful, would have resulted in their separation from 
the Episcopal Church, the Bishop reluctantly pronounced upon 
him the sentence of deposition. Mr. Hooper then joined the 
Baptists, and later gained eminence as a pulpit orator in that 
denomination. 

During the second decade of the nineteenth century, when 
the Episcopal Church in North Carolina had not yet been re- 
suscitated, a new spiritual force was in the ascendant in the 
person of William Mercer Green. Born in Wilmington, North 
Carolina, May 2, 1798, he was graduated from the University of 
North Carolina in 1818 as second honor man in the class in which 
James Knox Polk, afterwards President of the United States, 
won first honor. After graduation, he settled in Williams- 
borough; and, it is believed, taught school there for a time.* 
The Diocese of North Carolina was organized in 1817; and at the 
Diocesan Convention two years later, Green attended as a lay 
delegate from St. John's, Williamsborough. In 1821 he was 
ordered deacon by Bishop Richard Channing Moore of Virginia 
at the Convention in Raleigh. At St. John's, Williamsborough, 
which became his charge, he labored diligently for four years. 
He was ordained priest by Bishop Moore in 1822. During his 
rectorship of St. John's, he regularly visited Warrenton, Oxford, 
Halifax, Raleigh, St. Mary's in Orange County, and Hillsboro; 



*Sermon of the Rev. Alfred S. Lawrence, preached on October 21, 1923, 
in commemoration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the consecration of the 
Chapel of the Cross, October 19, 1848. 



28 STORY AND PAGEANT 

and Milton and St. Jude's, it was said, occasionally. St. Mary's 
Chapel, about ten miles east of Hillsborough, and St. Jude's, in 
the neighborhood of the Union Meeting House near Stony Creek, 
were missionary stations. The latter was admitted into union 
with the Convention in 1818, the former in 1819.* Churches in 
Warrenton, Oxford and Hillsborough were built, and parishes in 
these places organized, although the one at Oxford was slow in 
gaining strength. 

For the first six years following the organization of the 
Diocese of North Carolina, Bishop Moore of Virginia visited the 
new diocese annually. In 1823, when the Convention met at 
Salisbury, the Rev. Mr. Green nominated the Rev. John Stark 
Ravenscroft of Virginia for the bishopric of North Carolina. 
Although personally known to no one in the Convention, except 
young Mr. Green, Ravenscroft was unanimously elected, as the 
result of the impressive representations of Mr. Green. The 
Standing Committee chose Mr. Green to be the bearer of the 
news to Mr. Ravenscroft; and the record of that meeting is im- 
pressive and memorable, f 

"In 1825 Mr. Green became rector of the newly created 
parish at St. Matthew's, Hillsboro," says the Rev. A. S. Law- 
rence, "and for thirteen years served it faithfully and well. An 
interesting event occurred there in 1826. James H. Otey, of the 
class of 1820, was ordained. Otey had known and loved Green 
in college. Otey came from Virginia. After his graduation, he 
became tutor; and it was one of his duties to read morning prayers 
in Person Hall. In desperation, because of ignorance, Otey 
wrote to Green asking him how to conduct these services. Green's 
reply was laconically eloquent : he sent Otey a Book of Common 
Prayer! The following year Green baptized Otey at Warrenton, 
and successfully presented his friend for ordination to the diaco- 
nate and priesthood. Otey later went out to Tennessee as the 
leader of a little band of devoted clergy. At his invitation, 
Bishop Ravenscroft made a visitation to Tennessee; and in 1833, 
when Tennessee was organized as a diocese, Otey was elected its 



*In a letter, March 5, 1882, Bishop Green wrote to Rev. Joseph W. 
Murphy: "My only visit to St. Jude's Chapel was in 1823 or '4." Consult 
Rev. Joseph W. Murphy: A Sermon-Sketch of the History of St. Matthew's 
Parish, Hillsboro, N. C. (Washington, D. C, 1900). 

*A Memoir, prefixed to The Works of the Right Reverend John Stark 
Ravenscroft, D.D., I, 36, 63-4. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 29 

bishop. Seventeen years afterwards it was Otey's part to join in 
consecrating as a bishop his old friend Green. Soon after Otey 
became bishop, another Carolina man of the class of 1821 was 
made Bishop of the Southwest, and later Bishop of Louisiana: 
Leonidas Polk. And it was Polk and Otey and Green, three 
University of North Carolina men, who founded the University 
of the South at Sewanee." * 

The growth of the Episcopal Church in Chapel Hill was pain- 
fully slow. A Mr. Wright, of the Episcopal Church, preached in 
Chapel Hill in 1820 ; and doubtless Dr. William Hooper, who was 
ordered deacon in the same year and had St. Mary's as a Sunday 
charge, assisted in conducting the chapel exercises. In 1831 
Bishop Levi Silliman Ives and Mr. Green visited the University, 
the bishop preaching in Person Hall to a congregation consisting 
principally of faculty and students. During the next few years 
Green preached once or twice in the chapel ; and on the occasion 
of Bishop Ives's first visitation to Hillsborough, in October, 1832, 
Mr. Green presented thirty persons for confirmation, among 
whom were the following young men, afterwards notable, from 
the University: Charles L. Pettigrew, William S. Pettigrew, 
Julian E. Sawyer, John H. Haughton, Richard B. Creecy, Ed- 
ward W. Jones, and Thomas B. Hill. In 1835 the Rev. Philip 
B. Wiley visited Chapel Hill as a missionary; but he met with so 
little encouragement that he was transferred to another field. 
In 1836, it appears, Mr. Green began making monthly visits to 
Chapel Hill, sometimes preaching in the old Union Meeting 
House on the site of the present Presbyterian Church, and at 
other times preaching in the College Chapel. 

The permanent establishment of the Episcopal Church in 
Chapel Hill was the indirect result of an abortive attempt by 
President David L. Swain to institute the office of University 
Chaplain. The chaplain's salary was six hundred dollars, 
equally contributed by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies, 
and the trustees of the University. The office of chaplain was 
to be held in turn by representatives of the Methodists, Episco- 



*Anniversary Sermon, cited above. According to the late Bishop Che- 
shire, Bishops Otey, Polk, and Elliott of Georgia, are generally regarded as 
the founders of the University of the South. If Elliott was the most influ- 
ential of the three in founding the institution, Otey and Polk conceived the 
idea of the University. Bishop Green actively co-operated in the founding of 
the University of the South, but was not a leader in the movement. 



30 STORY AND PAGEANT 

palians, Baptists and Presbyterians. The Rev. E. Wadsworth, 
the husband of Mr. Swain's sister, was first designated; but the 
presiding Methodist bishop, the Right Rev. Thomas A. Morris, 
refused his consent on the ground of paucity of Methodists in the 
neighborhood and among faculty and students. * In consequence 
an Episcopalian, the Rev. William Mercer Green, was in 1837, it 
appears, elected University Chaplain, with the rank of Professor 
of Belles Lettres, having the duty of teaching rhetoric and logic 
three hours a week. 

At the instance of Dr. Elisha Mitchell, objection was made 
to having all public services conducted by the University 
Chaplain. It was finally arranged that Professor Green 
should conduct prayers about sunrise each morning, the forenoon 
service on every other Sunday (the alternate being Dr. Mitchell), 
and a Bible class in the afternoon. In addition to three hours of 
teaching, Professor Green corrected the compositions and 
speeches, delivered in public twice a year by the seniors, and those 
of the declaimers and graduates at commencement. The Sun- 
day morning service in the chapel was held as part of the univer- 
sity discipline, the roll being called in order to enforce the law 
against "students leaving the Hill without permission", and the 
faculty were strongly opposed to any change. In consequence, 
Professor Green set his heart upon the organization of an Episco- 
pal congregation in Chapel Hill. 

The task was indeed arduous. He found only ten communi- 
cants, and twenty-four others, from about sixteen years on, who 
were in sympathy with him — the remainder of the inhabitants 
being under the control of other denominations. The country 
had not yet recovered from the financial depression caused by the 
panic of 1837; and as late as 1845 cotton was selling as low as four 
and a half to five cents a pound. Concerning his duties as Uni- 
versity Chaplain, Professor Green reported to the Diocesan Con- 
vention of 1838 in Pittsborough that he had been met "with the 
most respectful attention of both the authorities and students of 
the institution. The responses are made with spirit ; a number of 
prayer books have been called for; and the hours of public worship 
are marked with that reverential respect which our services sel- 
dom fail to inspire". To the convention of 1839, he reported that 



*Battle: History of the University of North Carolina, I, 454-5. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 31 

the spare Sunday, at his disposal in consequence of Dr. Mitchell 
officiating each alternate Sunday, had been spent for the most 
part in visiting the parishes of Pittsborough, Hillsborough, 
Raleigh, and Salem Chapel. Like all of the bishops of the 
Episcopal Church in North Carolina — Ravenscroft, Ives, At- 
kinson, Lyman, Cheshire — Green firmly believed in and al- 
lowed the admission of devout Christians, who were not mem- 
bers of the Episcopal Church, to receive the Holy Communion in 
the public services of the Church. To the convention of 1840, 
Professor Green reported that he had administered the Lord's 
Supper to twenty-three persons, ten of whom were Episcopalians. 
"It is greatly to be desired by the friends and members of the 
church in this place," he prophetically added, "that they should 
have a church building of their own, and that full parochial 
ministrations may be extended to them." 

Now at last the ardent dreams of Green began to take definite 
form, in concrete plans for the organizing of a congregation and 
the building of a house of worship. At first he held Sunday night 
services in his own parlor or in that of Dr. De Berniere Hooper; 
and obtained for those students who were members of the 
Episcopal Church permission to attend these services. His 
parental attitude towards the students is voiced in his report to 
the Convention of 1841 : "Under the present state of things little 
can be done towards the profitable instruction of the sons of the 
Church during their collegiate course. For four of the most im- 
portant years of their life they are cut off from the stated and 
peculiar lessons in which they were early trained. As an almost 
necessary consequence, they become indifferent to the high and 
holy claims of the Church, and too often lose all their religious 
impressions." Owing to the settlement in Chapel Hill of several 
families of Episcopalians, Green reported that there were nearly 
thirty persons ready to be formed into a congregation. An ap- 
peal to the diocese will be made, he says; and further states that 
one-fourth of the sum needed to build a house of worship can be 
raised in the village. 

On May 13, 1842, the members of the Episcopal Church 
were organized into a Congregation; and all necessary measures 
for the regular organization of a parish were adopted. The origi- 
nal record, with the individual signatures, still extant, reads as 
follows: 



32 STORY AND PAGEANT 

We, the subscribers, do hereby agree to form ourselves 
into a Church or Congregation of Christian people to be 
known by the name of the Church of the Atonement, Chapel 
Hill, N. C, and do also hereby consent to adopt and be gov- 
erned by the constitution and canons of the Episcopal Church 
in these United States. 

May 13, 1842. 

The signatories were as follows: Archibald MacLaine 
Hooper, great-grandson of the Rev. William Hooper, second 
rector of Trinity Church, Boston, and father of three disting- 
uished sons: Professor John De Berniere Hooper of the University 
faculty; Johnston Jones Hooper, humorist, and Secretary of the 
Provincial Congress of the Confederacy; and George De Berniere 
Hooper, Chancellor in the Eastern Division of Alabama ; Lloyd 
Moore, uncle of Dr. George Moore, bachelor and former business 
man; John Jones Roberts, Professor of French in the Univer- 
sity and afterwards an Episcopal minister; Manuel Fetter, of 
Pennsylvania, Professor of Greek in the University, although he 
had originally intended to be an Episcopal minister; John De 
Berniere Hooper, Professor of Latin and French in the Univer- 
sity, formerly a teacher in the Episcopal School for Boys, in the 
grove which is now the site of St. Mary's School for Girls, and for 
many subsequent years Senior Warden of the Chapel of the 
Cross; Stephen Sneed Green, son of Professor Green by his first 
wile; John M. Craig, son of James Craig, one of the donors of the 
site of the University, from whom, it appears, was descended the 
late Gov. Locke Craig of North Carolina; Robert Troy Hall, a 
student of the University, grandson of John Hall, Justice of the 
North Carolina Supreme Court; William Mercer Green, Jr., 
oldest son of Professor Green, who a few years later was engaged 
in an encounter in which both he and his adversary were killed; 
George Moore, an excellent physician, descendant of the Moores 
so prominent in the early history of the Carolinas; Johnston 
Blakeley Jones, named for the distinguished naval officer of the 
War of 1812, a son of the Solicitor General, Colonel Edward 
Jones ; James Severin Green, son of Professor Green by his first 
wife, a student of the University; Charlotte Hooper, wife of 
Archibald MacLaine Hooper and daughter of Lieut. Colonel 
John De Berniere of the British army; Mary Fleming Waddell, 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 33 

a sister of Bishop Green's first wife and the wife of E. Hayne 
Waddell, attorney-at-law; Anne Chambers Hall, daughter of 
State Solicitor Matthew Troy and widow of William Hall, of 
Fayetteville ; Mary Elizabeth Hooper, daughter of the Rev. 
"William Hooper, D.D., LL.D., and wife of Professor De Bernierc 
Hooper; Matilda A. Williams, a seamstress of highest character; 
Sally P. Williams, Matilda's sister, housekeeper of Professor 
Green; Mary W. Green, afflicted but charming daughter of Pro- 
fessor Green by his first wife; Mary Weldon Hall, oldest daugh- 
ter of Mrs. Anne C. Hall, so attractive as to be called "Little 
Divinity" by the students; Elizabeth Craig, wife of John M. 
Craig; Catherine S. Waddell, daughter of Mrs. Mary F. Wad- 
dell; Charlotte J. Green, second wife of Professor Green, born 
Fleming; Mrs. Polly Ann Jones, wife of Dr. Johnston B. Jones. 

Professor Green labored unceasingly toward the building of 
the proposed church, and the strengthening of the congregation. 
At the convention of 1842, he reported fifteen communicants; 
and stated that much interest had been displayed in many parts 
of the diocese. He further reported that a "pleasant, spacious 
and convenient lot" had been purchased from the University, 
being part of the land bought of Thomas Taylor; that a Sunday 
School, attended by the children of the congregation, was al- 
ready in operation; and that contract had been made for a good 
part of the materials for building. "Many of the villagers," he 
said, in describing local sentiment, "express a desire for the com- 
pletion of our Church — some from a dislike to attend the ser- 
vices of the College Chapel, others on account of their sincere 
preference for the doctrine and worship of our Church." 

A few contributions were received in 1842, and in June, 1843, 
the Church building was actually commenced. In the course of 
the years which supervened before the completion of the church, 
Professor Green became seriously concerned about the students, 
who were receiving no religious instruction. "The spiritual in- 
terests of many of the sons of the Church here assembled", he 
said, "are calling loudly for that spiritual supervision and for 
those winning and holy influences which the Church alone can 
provide. Without these should it be a matter of surprise if their 
young hearts forget the early lessons of parental love and wander 
in the ways of sin?" 

From the outset, it is only candid to point out, Professor 



34 STORY AND PAGEANT 

Green met with persistent opposition in the performance of his 
duties as Chaplain of the University. Both Dr. James Phillips 
and Dr. Elisha Mitchell protested against the use of the Lord's 
Prayer in Chapel exercises, as introducing "sectarianism" into 
the University. Dr. Mitchell, who regarded himself as a sort of 
spiritual pastor of the whole community, held services in the 
chapel every other Sunday; but, as already related, a number of 
the citizens of the town stated that they disliked attending ser- 
vices in the College Chapel. Being a Congregationalist minister, 
Dr. Mitchell affiliated at Chapel Hill with the Presbyterians, who 
even objected to the building of the Episcopal house as tending 
to introduce "sectarianism" into the University. A young wom- 
an dying of a lingering illness was greatly cheered by the visits 
and ministrations of the Rev. Mr. Green. On her death bed she 
left with her family a request that Mr. Green conduct her funeral. 
On learning of this request, Mr. Green wrote a note to Dr. 
Mitchell, acknowledging his diligent pastoral services to the 
people of the village, and explaining that it was in consequence of 
the girl's dying request that he intended to officiate at the 
funeral. Dr. Mitchell replied with a distinct suggestion that 
Mr. Green was intruding upon his province. 

Gradually the difficulties accumulated and became more 
acute. Dr. Mitchell, who had been road overseer for years, in- 
sisted that the post be taken by Professor Green. But when 
Green, as road overseer, proceeded to give a new direction to the 
Raleigh road at a certain point, Dr. Mitchell came out to the spot 
where the road work was being done and openly denounced Pro- 
fessor Green in no uncertain terms. So vexed was Bishop Ives 
by this state of affairs that in his annual address to the Episcopal 
Convention in 1843, he somewhat intemperately declared: "In 
every instance where the power of truth in the Church begins to 
be felt in the needy portions of the Diocese, the engines of violent 
and systematic opposition are brought to bear against her. 
Nothing is too preposterous to be said, nothing too unchristian 
to be done, if her progress thereby can be checked. The doc- 
trine of 'pious frauds' was never more rife in the palmiest days of 
Jesuitism, than it is among the persecutors of the Church at the 
present moment." 

Work on the new church proceeded very slowly. In 1843, 
Bishop Ives in his Annual Address said: "Among the many 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 35 

objects calling for our efforts as a Diocese, none seems to your 
Bishop to exceed in importance the erection of a suitable house of 
worship at Chapel Hill." By May, 1844, the church was three- 
fourths completed; and at the Diocesan Convention Professor 
Green reported that the sum of twelve hundred dollars was needed 
for its completion, for which "appeals will be made to those por- 
tions of the Diocese which have as yet contributed little or 
nothing." On May 24, 1846, Bishop Ives officiated in the Uni- 
versity Chapel in the morning and at a private house in the 
evening. "When I observed around me," he says, "a large con- 
gregation crowded together in a most inconvenient manner in a 
private home, numbers for want of room having been forced 
away, and recollected that within two or three hundred yards 
there stood a beautiful Gothic edifice, which a few hundred dol- 
lars would open to the wants of the people, I felt mortified and 
humbled for our spiritual indifference." 

The heart of the tireless Green was cheered by the gift of 
five hundred dollars in 1846, although the church was still far 
from completion. "In addition to my stated services in the 
College Chapel," reports Green to the Convention, "I have for 
the last four months preached on Sunday evenings in my private 
parlor. The attendance so far, especially of the students, has 
been encouraging." Moreover a Bible Class, chiefly of young 
ladies, had been formed. In 1847 work on the church pro- 
ceeded apace; and in January, 1848, the Rev. Aaron F. Olm- 
stead, D.D., born at Hartford, Connecticut on August 22, 1818, 
took charge as Rector of the Church of the Atonement, as it was 
originally called. During the summer of this year (1848), the 
church was completed; and on October 19, 1848, the eighteenth 
Sunday after Trinity, Bishop Ives officiated at Chapel Hill and 
consecrated the House of Worship, which he called the "Chapel 
of the Holy Cross," and administered the Holy Communion. 
"This act gives me peculiar satisfaction," he said, "as the com- 
pletion of the hopes and prayers of a most valued brother, and 
also of a work promising in itself most essential advantages to 
the Diocese." The word "Holy" in the phrase employed by 
Bishop Ives, "Chapel of the Holy Cross," was both a superfluity 
and an error. According to Dr. Battle, it was perhaps caused by 
Bishop Ives's engrossing preoccupation with the doctrines of the 
Roman Catholic Church which, after prolonged doubt and hesi- 
tation, he was four years later to join. 



36 STORY AND PAGEANT 

Throughout the protracted period of building, Professor 
Green generously contributed thereto through the labors of 
several of his slaves and a pair of his mules. "A considerable 
addition to the building fund," records Dr. Battle, "he planned to 
contribute by the donation of a kiln of bricks prepared for firing 
on his land and at his expense. His reverence for the Lord's 
Day, however, was fatal to his generous intentions. He caused 
the fires to be extinguished Saturday night at twelve o'clock and 
the kiln became a mass of crumbling, half-baked bricks. The 
loss was estimated at two hundred and fifty dollars. His parish- 
ioners, less reverential than he, differed from the Rector and 
freely quoted the Scriptural passage relating to the ass falling 
into a pit on the Sabbath and being justifiably rescued." When 
the final "drive" was made for funds to complete the structure, 
the new Rector, Mr. Olmsted, announced that "an individual in 
the Parish" had lent a thousand dollars. This individual, one 
may guess, was none other than the patient, devoted and zealous 
Green. 



The original Chapel of the Cross is a beautiful Gothic struc- 
ture, classic in proportion and design. The identity of the archi- 
tect has remained veiled in mystery these many years. Inde- 
fatigable researches by the writer in the church archives and in 
many other sources have produced no documentary evidence of 
any sort. There is no mention of the architect in the extant 
church records. The discovery of the probable model for the de- 
sign of the church is due to Bishop Cheshire, who communicated 
his discovery to me. The conclusion I have reached is that the 
plans for the church were recommended to Mr. Green by Mr. 
Francis Lister Hawks, from designs in a book entitled "Essay on 
Gothic Architecture, with various plans and drawings for the 
churches, designed chiefly for the use of the clergy," by John 
Henry Hopkins, D.D., Bishop of Vermont, published at Bur- 
lington, Vermont, in 1836. 

For many years there prevailed a strong tradition in the 
parish at Chapel Hill, a tradition to which Dr. Battle without 
any concrete evidence was inclined to give credence, that the 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 37 

architect of the Church of the Atonement, the church's original 
name, was Richard Upjohn, the famous church architect. * 

Richard Upjohn was the architect of Christ's Church, 
Raleigh, one of the most beautiful buildings in North Carolina. 
The corner-stone of this church was laid on December 28, 1848 ; 
and the church was consecrated by Bishop Atkinson on January 
5, 1854. As a specimen of church architecture, Bishop Cheshire 
ranks it as "fit to stand next to our state capitol, representing, as 
they do, totally different periods and schools of architecture, but 
alike in dignity, truth and beauty, each admirably adapted to its 
special purpose, and both standing for simplicity, sincerity, and 
unostentatious worth and power." 

The records of Richard Upjohn's office for the period under 
consideration, which would doubtless determine whether or not 
he was the architect for the Church of the Atonement, are un- 
fortunately not extant. This church was five years in building, 
from 1843 to 1848 when it was completed. As the cornerstone 
of Christ Church was not laid until December 28, 1848, the tra- 
dition that Upjohn was engaged to furnish the design for the 
Church of the Atonement, because of the enthusiastic appreci- 
ation of the beautiful design for Christ Church, is seen to be with- 
out reliable foundation. Mr. Hobart Upjohn, great-nephew of 
Richard and himself a famous church architect, is authority for 
the statement that Richard Upjohn practised the benevolent 
custom of presenting a set of plans, without cost, every year to a 
church in need of assistance. It is just possible, therefore, that 
he may have presented such a set of plans, gratis, to the vestry 



*Richard Upjohn was born in Shaftesbury, England, January 22, 1802. 
At the age of thirty-one, he began practice as an architect in New Bedford, 
Massachusetts. In 1835, it is significant for our purpose to note, he built St. 
John's Church at Bangor, Maine. This is a structure in the perpendicular 
Gothic style, which included a full system of Gothic vaulting. The favorable 
attention which this beautiful design attracted led directly to Mr. Upjohn's 
commission to build the new Trinity Church, New York City. This event 
registers the beginning of a distinguished career. Mr. Upjohn was the de- 
signer of many notable structures, in various parts of the country. Most 
conspicuous among these were : the Church of the Ascension, associated with the 
name of Dr. Parkhurst; the University Place Presbyterian Church; the Church 
of the Holy Communion; and St. Thomas's, New York. Richard Upjohn 
founded and was the first president of the American Institute of Architects, 
holding this post for fifteen years. Many churches of beauty and distinction 
were structures of his design; and it has been justly said that Richard Upjohn 
"stamped upon the country the Gothic revival which was so distinctive of 
the Victorian period." This famous artist in ecclesiastical structural design 
died at Garrison, New York, August 16, 1878. 



38 STORY AND PAGEANT 

of the Church of the Atonement in 1842 or 1843, modeled on the 
general design of St. John's Church, Bangor, Maine. There is a 
strong resemblance between the two designs, if we omit the tow- 
ering spire on St. John's. The same features of architectural 
design are found in both, although there are many differences in 
detail. 

Mr. Hobart Upjohn thinks there is strong likelihood that his 
great-uncle drew up the designs for the Church ot the Atonement. 
The belief in the long current tradition that Richard Upjohn was 
the designer of the Church of the Atonement was a powerful, if 
not a decisive, influence in the vestry's choice of Mr. Hobart 
Upjohn of New York City to design the new Chapel ol the Cross, 
consecrated in 1925. The architects for the Battle Memorial 
were Upjohn and Conable; but Mr. Conable subsequently with- 
drew from the firm, and the Battle Memorial was completed 
under the direction of the remamng member of the firm, Mr. 
Hobart Upjohn. Other structures in North Carolina, notable for 
beauty of design and refined classicism, designed by Mr. Hobart 
Upjohn are the library of the College of Agriculture and Engineer- 
ing, University of North Carolina, at Raleigh, the Village Chapel 
at Pinehurst, and the Sprunt Memorial Presbyterian Church at 
Chapel Hill. 

After careful study and investigation, and reference to 
architectural authorities, I have reached the conclusion that the 
unmistakable model of the Church of the Atonement is a design, 
represented by three plates, in Bishop Hopkins's "Essay on 
Gothic Architecture," already cited. In the "Life of Bishop 
Hopkins" by his son, we are told that the "Essay on Gothic 
Architecture" was the "pioneer publication on Gothic architec- 
ture on this side of the water." Although Bishop Hopkins made 
no pretensions to being anything more than an amateur, his 
biographer asserts that the "Essay" deserves praise for its ear- 
nestness in advocating costly churches. Bishop Hopkins be- 
lieved that churches "should be the most precious of all earthly 
edifices;" and that everything about them should "answer to the 
sublime and glorious end for which they were erected." 

In the preface to the "Essay on Gothic Architecture," 
Bishop Hopkins says that "he puts it forth, not presuming that 
it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank 
of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 39 

amateur; only intended to be of service, where better guides are 
not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope are that it may 
induce our rising clergy to give attention to a subject which 
peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of 
things, be principally committed to their management in a 
country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects 
cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the 
funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom war- 
rant the employing them." This passage describes exactly the 
position of the small and by no means affluent congregation in 
Chapel Hill, led by the zealous Green in the struggle to build a 
church. It would be precisely to a book of this sort, containing 
architectural designs ready for use without charge, that Green 
would have resorted in the circumstances. 

There can be no doubt whatsoever, I judge, for even a cur- 
sory inspection of the designs is convincing, that the Church of 
the Atonement was modeled from the designs numbered 29, 30, 
and 31 which appear on Plates XI and XII in Bishop Hopkins's 
"Essay on Gothic Architecture," 

It is quite clear that Bishop Hopkins did not originate the 
design, but selected it from some standard work on church archi- 
tecture because of its beauty, symmetry and nobility. Unques- 
tionably many churches, famous and obscure, have been built on 
similar Cathedral designs. The original designs in some standard 
or classic treatise on church architecture, these designs in Hop- 
kins's book, or others strikingly similar, doubtless furnished 
Richard Upjohn the inspiration for the design of St. John's 
Church, Bangor, Maine. In describing the preparations made 
by Bishop Hopkins for writing this essay, his biographer says: 
"He had begun the preparation for it while at Cambridge, there 
mastering the art of drawing on stone, and completing a number 
of the drawings with his own hand. At times, after removing to 
Burlington, a new box of prepared lithographic stones would 
come by stage coach from Boston, and after some weeks would 
return in the same manner with fresh drawings; and thus all the 
lithography of that work was done by his own hands, including 
the ornamental title page. It did a good work in its day, though 



40 STORY AND PAGEANT 

pretending to nothing higher than what might be fairly arrived 
at by a pioneer, and an amateur at that."* 

In the designs referred to in the "Essay on Gothic Architec- 
ture," small pinnacles surmount the pilasters at the four corners 
of the tower and side buttresses. These small pinnacles, octago- 
nal pyramids, with crockets up the edges, are not now found upon 
the present structure. They were originally begun and partially 
completed. It was the unexpected fall of one of these pinnacles, 
the left front one, blown down by a sudden gust of wind and 
almost striking someone on the ground below, which, according 
to Dr. Battle, occasioned their removal as probable sources of 
danger. Professor Green explicitly refers to these only partially 
completed small pinnacles in his mournful report on the retarda- 
tion in the progress of the erection of the Church of the Atone- 
ment, made to the Diocesan Convention of 1845, in these words: 
"More than two years have passed away since the work was 
begun. Numberless opportunities for advancing the cause of 
truth have been lost. The rank weeds are growing against its 
windowless walls, the pigeon is building among its rafters, and 
its unfinished spires seem protesting to Heaven against the 
apathy of the Diocese." 

It seems to me highly probable that Francis Lister Hawks 
observed these particular designs in Bishop Hopkins's book; and 
being favorably impressed by them, as suitable in style for a 
university community, recommended them to his friend Green. 
Francis L. Hawks's grandfather, John Hawks, a Moor from Malta 
who resided in England, accompanied William Tryon, ap- 
pointed governor of North Carolina, to that colony in 1764. An 
architect of ability, John Hawks drew up the plans for the 
"Governor's Palace" at New Berne, which was erected during 
Tryon's administration. This building was described by the 
historian Martin, as superior to any building of the kind in British 
North America, and as having no equal in South America in the 



*The Life of the Right Reverend John Henry Hopkins, First Bishop of Ver* 
mont and Seventh Presiding Bishop, by one of his Sons. New York (F. J. 
Huntington and Co., 105 Duane St.), 1873. The author was the Rev. John 
Henry Hopkins, Jr. 




ORIGINAL DESIGNS FOR THE CHURCH OF THE ATONEMENT 

Numbers 29, 30, 31 on Plates XI, XII in Bishop Hopkins's 

"Essay on Gothic Architecture" 



(See pages 36-44.) 




HISTORIAN OF THE PARISH 

(See title page, p. 50, and 57, Editor.) 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 43 

opinion (1783) of Francisco de Miranda, South American pa- 
triot. * 

Francis Lister Hawks was a talented amateur architect, 
doubtless deriving his talent and aptitude for design from his 
gifted grandfather. He drew up the plans for St. Matthew's, 
Hillsborough, and for St. Luke's, Salisbury. Gayarre, historian 
of Louisiana, in speaking of a church in New Orleans for which 
Francis L. Hawks had drawn the plans and of which he had 
supervised the construction, quotes Hawks's remark to him: "Is 
it not strange, my friend, that nobody will give me credit as an 
architect, as a provident, far-seeing administrator, and a rigid 
economist? These, I think, are my peculiar merits, if I have 
any."f 

For some time Hawks was a parishioner of his devoted friend, 
William M. Green, at Warrenton, North Carolina; and also took 
the keenest interest in Green's parochial work at Hillsborough. 
Indeed, Hawks was elected Senior Warden of St. Matthew's 
Church in 1824, serving devotedly for several years. When 
Green was raising funds for the erection of a church building at 
Chapel Hill, he may well have applied for advice and assistance 
to his close friend Hawks, endowed with a natural talent for 
architecture, who had drawn up the plans for St. Matthew's 
Church. This appears all the more likely since Green knew that 
no considerable sum could be raised for the Church at Chapel 
Hill, and that, in the interest of economy, the services of a pro- 
fessional architect would have to be dispensed with. In re- 
sponse to Green's request, if made as surmised, Hawks doubtless 
sent Green copies of the design in question from Bishop Hop- 
kins's book, or may even have sent him a copy of the book itself, 



*Francois-Xavier Martin: The History of North Carolina (New Orleans, 
1829), II, 265. In his Diary, among impressions of New Berne, Miranda says: 
in much more restrained style: "The best house of all, one which really merits 
the attention of a stranger, is that called the 'Palace.' It was built some 18 
years ago by an able English architect, Mr. Shanks (sic), who came out here 
for that special work with Governor Tryon, and who still (1783) lives here . . . 
The structure is entirely of the best English brick. Its ornaments are simple 
and carefully collected. In the great audience chamber, or assembly room, is 
a mantel of carefully selected marble of the best English workmanship." 
The Diary of Francisco Miranda. Tour of the United States. Translation 
from the Spanish text (The Hispanic Society, N. Y., 1928). 

fCharles E. A. Gavarre: Doctor Hawks, American Historical Record, 
January, 1872, pp. 16-19. 



44 STORY AND PAGEANT 

which, as we have seen, was written for the precise purpose of 
aiding poor parishes.* The few slight deviations from the 
Hopkins designs were doubtless due to the inexpertness of local 
carpenters and masons. Under the circumstances, the closeness 
of the reproduction is remarkable. It is worthy of note that a 
church built in 1841 by the Rev. Leonidas Polk, at Ashford, 
Maury County, Tennessee, is evidently constructed from these 
same designs; and a picture of it reveals a replica of the Church 
of the Atonement.j 



A crucial event in the life of William Mercer Green is full of 
a certain mystic interest. As Professor Green continued his fight 
for the Church and its observances in Chapel Hill, the differences 
with Dr. Mitchell became more aggravated. One day Green re- 
turned home, much depressed ; and informed his wife he was going 
to write to Governor Manly, Secretary of the Board of Trustees, 
and resign his professorship in the University. "I have a little 
plantation," he remarked. "I will turn the overseer off, white- 
wash the overseer's house, and we will live there. I haven't 
much to live on, but we can get along for awhile; and the very- 
first charge that is offered me, however small, I will accept." 
The very next morning, when he returned from college to write 
his resignation, he found a letter in his mail, informing him that 
he had been elected Bishop of Mississippi. To Bishop Cheshire 
he afterwards said: "If it hadn't been for the tact that I had de- 
clared I would accept the very first charge offered me, however 



*In an interesting letter, written by Bishop Green to the Rev. N. S. 
Richardson at the time of Dr. Hawks's death, he relates of Hawks: "It was 
through his solicitation, chiefly, that I was induced to leave my first charge, 
in Williamsboro, and organize a church in Hillsboro; where I soon afterwards 
settled." Consult In Memoriam, F. L. Hawks, D.D., LL.D.,(New York: 37 
Bible House), 1836. 

f William Mecklenburg Polk: Leonidas Polk, Bishop and General (Longmans 
Green & Co., New York, 1893), Vol. 2, illustration facing p. 151. This was 
St. John's Church, about six miles from Columbia, Tennessee, on the road to 
Mount Pleasant. In a description of this church, I.e., p. 151, it is described 
as "the result of the joint liberality of Bishop Polk and three of his brothers, 
who, with a spirit ... worthy of commendation and initiation, have thus de' 
voted a portion of the wealth with which God has blessed them to his service." 
This illustration was called to my attention by Mr. Alexander B. Andrews of 
Raleigh, North Carolina. It is perhaps not accidental that those designs 
attracted the attention of three friends, all alumni of the University of North 
Carolina: Hawks, Green, and Polk. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 45 

insignificant, I should never have had the courage to accept the 
post of Bishop of Mississippi." 

The parish and university here, the Church throughout 
North Carolina, the Church throughout the South owe a deep 
debt of lasting gratitude to this sweet but resolute, gentle but 
tenacious, benign Christian spirit. It was Green who founded 
the Church of the Atonement and, through indefatigable efforts, 
achieved the building of the Chapel of the Cross. It was Green 
who nominated Ravenscroft at the Diocesan Convention in 
Salisbury in 1823 and through a personal visit persuaded him to 
become the first Bishop of North Carolina. It was Green who, 
in conjunction with Otey and Polk and Elliott, assisted in found- 
ing the University of the South at Sewanee. For thirty-seven 
years he was Bishop of Mississippi. "Few men in the history of 
the Diocese, or of the Church in the United States, " says Bishop 
Cheshire, "have been more truly admirable in character, pure 
and blameless in life, and more effective in their ministry than 
the Rev. William Mercer Green . . ."* 

As the salary of the rector was too meagre to support a mar- 
ried couple, the Rev. Mr. Olmsted resigned to accept the charge 
of St. Bartholomew's, Pittsboro, in 1848. Mr. Olmsted was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Frederick Davis, a deacon, first honor man at 
the University of North Carolina in the class of 1845, and son of 
the Bishop of South Carolina of the same name. In his choice, 
the zealous advocacy of Miss Sally Williams, Professor Green's 
housekeeper, was realized. As Dr. Battle told me the story, 
there came up at a church meeting the resignation of Mr. Olm- 
sted and the difficult problem of finding a successor. After 
reckoning up all possible sources of revenue, the amount needed 
for a rector's salary was still pitifully inadequate. The case 
looked hopeless. In anxious and plaintive tones, Miss Sally in- 
quired: "Oh, can't we just get a little Deac?" Fortunately her 
longings were gratified in the securing of a young, if not a little, 
deacon. Professor Green gladly assisted Mr. Davis with the 
services, during the latter's incumbency. In 1851, Mr. Davis 
resigned, succeeding his father as rector of the church at Camden, 
when the latter was elected Bishop of South Carolina. 



^Centennial Celebration, St. Matthew's Church, Hillsborough, N. C, 
August 24, 1924. 



46 STORY AND PAGEANT 

During the period from 1851 until 1868 occurred few local 
events of importance worthy of historical record concerning the 
Chapel of the Cross. The most important event, as affecting the 
parish, was the purchase of property for a rectory, which was ac- 
complished chiefly through the efforts of Judge William H. 
Battle. A significant event was the meeting of the Forty-Sixth 
Annual Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, which 
was held in the Chapel of the Cross, May 14 to 17, 1862. At this 
time the rector was the Rev. Francis W. Hilliard; and the lay 
delegates were Hon. W. H. Battle, Dr. W. P. Mallett, Mr. A. 
Mickle, and Professor M. Fetter, all of whom were present at the 
sessions of the convention. 

Over a period of seventeen years, traversing the Civil War 
period, there were no marked changes or developments vitally 
affecting the parish, other than the general disorganization and 
tragic losses of war. Rectors in order were Professor Fordyce M. 
Hubbard of the University (1851-), Professor John Thomas 
Wheat, also of the University (1853-6), Henry T. Lee (1856-8), 
again John Thomas Wheat (1858-60), E. M. Forbes (1860-1), 
and Francis W. Hilliard (1861-5). In 1861, Mr. Hilliard reported 
to the Convention that there were fifty-nine communicants; and 
by 1863 this number had increased to ninety-two, the additions 
being "refugees" from the counties near the sea coast, then under 
threat of occupation, or actually occupied, by the forces of the 
United States. 

The Rev. Mr. Hilliard resigned his rectorship, July 10, 1865, 
when the Rev. Dr. Hubbard again unselfishly took charge of the 
parish and continued as rector until the closing of the doors of 
the University in 1868. During Professor Hubbard's incum- 
bency, his place was occasionally taken, in his absence, by one 
or other of several lay-readers: William H. Battle, William P. 
Mallett, Andrew Mickle. Among the resolutions passed by the 
Vestry on November 16, 1868, expressing regret over the depar- 
ture of Dr. Hubbard, occurs this expressive tribute: 

Resolved, That for his almost gratuitous services to the 
Parish in its condition of impoverishment caused by the late 
war, he is entitled to, and we hereby tender him, our most 
grateful thanks and acknowledgements. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 47 

As a lad in Salisbury, I knew well and held in deepest rever- 
ence that venerable and saintly couple, Dr. and Mrs. J. T. 
Wheat, the grandparents of Mrs. Archibald Henderson Boy den. 
During his rectorship here, Dr. Wheat was Professor of Logic and 
Rhetoric, and shared with Dr. Mitchell the Chaplaincy of the 
University. After the War between the States, he was Rector 
of St. Lazarus's Church, Memphis, Tennessee, of which Jefferson 
Davis was Senior Warden. The ladies of this parish, headed by 
Mrs. Jefferson Davis, collected contributions of silver and jewelry, 
from which was made one of the handsomest sets of communion 
vessels in the South, of an amalgam of silver and gold. It is now 
in use at St. Luke's, Salisbury, to which Church it was presented 
at the time of his death as a memorial to Dr. Wheat. In a 
biography, spread on the pages of the late Dr. Francis J. Mur- 
dock's "Book of Remembrance," occurs this interesting reminis- 
cence of the saintly Mrs. Wheat: 

For sixty years she was a devoted wife and mother; her 
life was spent in doing good, nursing the sick. She was 
friend of the friendless, ever ready to respond to the call of 
the needy. While her husband was professor at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, she devoted herself to the college 
students and endeared herself to them by her kind, motherly 
ministrations, having them brought to her house and nursing 
them as if they were her very own. At her suggestion and 
pleading for a building for the sick, the Trustees built a cot- 
tage in her own yard, which she furnished with every com- 
fort and convenience. 

This was the small structure, located in the southwest corner 
of Dr. Eben Alexander's yard, which, during my college days, 
was used by him as an office. 

It is worthy of mention that, in the early years of the Church 
in Chapel Hill, the lay delegates who attended the Diocesan Con- 
ventions were: Dr. Johnston B. Jones, Edward Mallett, Andrew 
Mickle, Dr. William P. Mallett, Manuel Fetter, Judge William 
H. Battle, and H. H. Smith, father of the Hon. Hoke Smith of 
Georgia. The first layman to represent, in 1842, the "Church of 
the Atonement" was J. J. Roberts of New Berne, afterwards a 
clergyman; and the first layman to represent the parish under the 
new name of "Chapel of the Cross" was Joel D. Battle in 1849. 
For many years, Judge William H. Battle was a lay delegate; and 



48 STORY AND PAGEANT 

when, after 1868, the parish was all but obliterated, a Special 
Ceremonial Amendment was adopted, so that Judge Battle 
might still represent the parish. The amendment was couched 
in general terms; but it was really passed to meet that particular 
case in a religious crisis. Even after he had removed to Raleigh, 
Judge Battle declined to sever his membership with the Chapel 
of the Cross until 1874. 

The dark decade from 1868, when the University's doors 
were closed, until 1878, when the parish took on new life under the 
rectorship of the Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr., was one of 
trial and struggle. As Dr. Battle has pointed out, the closing of 
the University was very injurious to the village of Chapel Hill, 
and correspondingly to the parish of the Chapel of the Cross. 
Indeed, most of its members were forced to leave the parish, and 
at one time there was not a sufficient number of male members to 
form a vestry. Services, however, were still faithfully main- 
tained by lay readers; and the services of the Church were regu- 
larly maintained by the Rev. R. B. Sutton, D.D., who officiated 
once a month until 1878. In 1875 and part of 1876, records Dr. 
Battle, Professors J. DeB. Hooper and John Kimberly, as lay- 
readers, kept up the church services; and from 1876 President 
Kemp P. Battle of the University acted as lay-reader down to the 
very time of his death. The officers of the vestry from 1848 
until 1868 were William H. Battle, Senior Warden; Andrew 
Mickle, Junior Warden; and for much of that time Professor 
Fetter was Secretary.* During the same period Mr. Mickle 
served as Treasurer. In 1875 Professor John Kimberly was ap- 
pointed Senior Warden, and Dr. W. P. Mallett, Junior Warden. 
On his removal to Asheville, Professor Kimberly was succeeded 
by Dr. K. P. Battle, who was elected on August 12, 1876, and 
held the office of Senior Warden for many years. Professor 
George T. Winston was Secretary from 1875 until 1877. On his 
resignation, he was succeeded by Professor J. DeB. Hooper, who 
also served as Treasurer. 

It is a source of pride and gratification to recall that the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina was re-opened in 1875, primarily 
through the persistent and heroic efforts of that grand old man, 



*In 1868 Judge Battle paid $500.00, the remainder due on the Rectory 
lot, and accrued interest thereon for several years, On October 1, 1878, the 
vestry agreed to have him paid $600.00, with interest on the same at six per 
cent, from January 1, 1879. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 49 

a second Father of the University, the late Dr. Kemp P. Battle, 
subsequently president of the University. It is likewise a source 
of pride and gratification that, just as this Parish was founded by 
a noble and zealous young clergyman afterwards to become 
Bishop of Mississippi, William Mercer Green, so this Parish was 
given a new birch under the pious ministrations of that beloved 
man: Joseph Blount Cheshire, afterwards Bishop of North 
Carolina. After the Parish had gained strength through the 
re-opening of the University, the choice for rector fell upon Mr. 
Cheshire, who had been ordered Deacon on Easter Day, April 
21, 1878. Beginning his parochial duties on the fourth Sunday 
after Easter, May 18, 1878, Mr. Cheshire served constructively 
for three years, until May 10, 1881. 

The Rectors who immediately followed Mr. Cheshire were: 
Edmund N. Joyner (1881-2), John Huske (October 14, 1882- 
July 1, 1884), and Malcolm Douglas (February, March, April, 
1885). All were men of devotion and consecration to Christian 
service. In August, 1886, the Rev. William Meade Clark of 
Virginia, called to the rectorship here, signified his acceptance. 
His work here began in November, 1886. On November 22, 
1887, the vestry received his letter of resignation. He had 
accepted the Rectorship of the Church of the Good Shepherd, 
Raleigh. He was very popular in his ministrations and gave 
universal satisfaction here. 

During the month of January, 1888, Dr. George P. Hubbard, 
of Jersey City, N. J., had temporary charge of the parish. On 
February 5, 1889, the Rev. Mr. Walton of Philadelphia was in- 
vited to take temporary charge of the Parish, and accepted. On 
April 25, 1889, the Rev. R. E. Wright, recently elected, assumed 
charge of the Parish, but almost immediately (May 1) startled 
his congregation by resigning, giving as his reason "difference in 
ways and customs." Next the Rev. Augustine Prentiss of the 
Diocese of Georgia was called and accepted, his duties to begin 
August 1, 1889. He remained until July, 1890, being succeeded 
by the Rev. E. M. Gushee of Cambridge, Massachusetts, who 
was called on September 11, 1890. He served one month at the 
end of this year. The following statement concerning Di. 
Gushee's service here is taken from the Church records: 

Returning after Christmas, Dr. Gushee remained for 

another month, during which time by his very kind and 



50 STORY AND PAGEANT 

generous efforts, and through the liberality of friends at the 
North, he personally supervised many desirable changes in 
the Church Buildings. For his kindly interest in them and 
his assiduous labors in their behalf, the Congregation of the 
Chapel of the Cross feel very grateful to him, and shall ever 
hold him in most affectionate regard. * 

An appropriation of $500.00 having been made in aid of the 
support of a Rector by the Diocesan Convention held at Ashe- 
ville in May, 1891, the vestry unanimously called the Rev. 
Fredeiick Towers, of Emmanuel Church, Warrenton, N. C, to 
the Rectorship of the Parish here. He entered upon his charge 
on September 3, 1891, and served devotedly and faithfully for 
three years. 

A few incidents, of some historical importance, are worthy 
of record. The Convocation of Raleigh met in this Church on 
April 30, 1879. On April 10, 1880, the thanks of the parish were 
tendered to Miss Mary R. Smith for the gift of a handsome and 
costly organ. The bell of the Chapel of the Cross was presented 
by the vestry of Christ's Church, Raleigh — this being the bell 
which hung in the tower of their first church. 

From 1894 until the present time, as vestryman, church offi- 
cial or parishioner, I have known personally all the rectors here, f 
Limitations of space forbid the paying of more extended tribute 
to their personalities, careers and devoted, consecrated service. 
The Rev. L. H. Schubert, who entered upon his duties and re- 
signed the following year (August 10, 1896), was lame in limb 



*During the brief incumbency of Dr. Gushee, according to the late Pro- 
fessor A. H. Patterson, many changes were made in the church, at his own 
expense and with money presumably raised elsewhere. He re-arranged the 
seats to give three aisles, whereas formerly there had been but two. The 
stoves were placed at the end of the church instead of on the sides; the chancel 
arch was cut and the ceiling over the present recess chancel, as well as the 
reredos, were put in. The rector's study, at the rear of the church, was 
entered from the church through two doors, one on each side of the altar. 
Dr. Gushee had the little vestry room built on the right side of the church at 
the back, using the original doors and decorative frame for the two doors of 
the vestry room. The old altar rail was replaced by the present simple oaken 
rail; the choir stalls were arranged as at present; and the walls were colored a 
deep Indian red. Professor Patterson, then a student, raised a collection to 
purchase the altar rest, which is still in use. 

fThe writer, first elected vestryman in 1899, served as Treasurer of the 
Parish from June 19, 1904, until October 1, 1914, when he resigned. He was 
then elected Assistant Treasurer, to have in charge the Rectory Fund. He 
has been vestryman at different times since 1914. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 51 

but ever active in good works. During his brief stay here he 
greatly endeared himself to the members of the Parish, by his 
warmth, geniality and transparent sincerity. 

On August 31, 1896, the Rev. Thomas E. Winecoff, President 
of Cooper Normal College, Mississippi, was offered the Rector- 
ship at the meagre salary of $400.00 and the use of an unfurnished 
rectory. Born at Concord, North Carolina, November 29, 1867, 
he was a graduate of Davidson College, whence he received the 
degrees of A.B. (1890) and A.M. (1893). He later prosecuted 
graduate studies at Vanderbilt University, and the Universities 
of West Virginia and of Washington. He was a brilliant scholar, 
being gifted in mathematics, Latin and the biological sciences.* 
The first general meeting of the congregation, following his 
arrival here, was held on April 19, 1897. Mr. Winecoff reminded 
me of an English curate, with his predilection for mathematics 
and his passion for philosophic study. He was an inspiring 
preacher and deep thinker; and his combative sermons, on live 
theories of philosophy as applied to actual living, aroused 
much discussion. Finding it impossible to live upon the meagre 
salary, which had been raised to $550.00 annually, he reluc- 
tantly resigned the Rectorship here, his resignation taking effect 
June 15, 1898. Writing to Mr. Winecoff on May 28, 1898, Dr. 
Battle praised him for "learning and ability, and the strength 
and lucidity of your sermons, which set forth truths of our re- 
ligion in a manner so cogent as to arouse genera! interest espec- 
ially among students of the University." At one time, during 
his brief stay here, Mr. Winecoff had under him eleven candi- 
dates for the ministry. 

Dr. William Hopkins Meade (October 30, 1898— November 
1, 1908) was greatly beloved by all his parishioners, for his good- 
ness, benignity and piety. Of close Church affiliation, he was 
the son of the Rev. Richard Kidder Meade, and grandson of the 
Right Rev. William Meade, Bishop of the Diocese of Virginia. 
Educated at the Episcopal Theological Seminary, Alexandria, he 
was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1863, and ordained 
Priest on November 20, 1864. At different times he held 



*Dr. Winecoff was professor of Latin at Centenary College, Louisiana, 
189L2; and for some time President of Cooper Normal College, Mississippi. 
For a number of years, he informs me, he was engaged in botanical work in 
Canada and Alaska. 



52 STORY AND PAGEANT 

charges at Mecklenburg, Virginia; Charlottesville, Virginia; 
Charleston, West Virginia, Philadelphia, and Roanoke, Virginia. 
The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him in 1879 
by Kenyon College, Ohio. Dr. Battle has described him, accu- 
rately, as "a well-read scholar, of a retiring disposition, but 
prompt and efficient in the performance of every duty." In his 
preaching, which was of a philosophic cast, he revealed a singular 
habit which fascinated the attention of his congregation: keeping 
his eyes fixed upon a certain spot on the floor during the entire 
sermon, and continually pointing relentlessly at it, as if it were 
the sole object of his consideration. 

A most popular Rector was the Rev. Richard Wallace 
Hogue, who was called here from St. John's Church, Wilming- 
ton, N. C, on September 15, 1908. Educated at the University 
of the South, where he excelled in athletics, he threw himself 
spontaneously and enthusiastically into the midst of student life 
here in Chapel Hill, and was fervently admired and beloved by 
the college boys. 

Two events of considerable importance in the life of the 
Parish occurred during the rectorship of Mr. Hogue here. 
Through his energetic efforts, supported by the financial 
assistance of friends in Wilmington, a Self Help Colony for stu- 
dents was established.* A large house and lot were purchased 
from a Mr. Hall, who bore the nickname "Bohea." Accordingly, 
the home of the Self Help Colony was called "Bohea Hall." 
This property was presented to the Board of Trustees of the 
University, either to be used by them as a co-operative home for 
students earning their own support, or to be rented and the in- 
come used for the assistance of such students. It was used for 
the purpose designated during Mr. Hogue's rectorship here. A 
mortgage remained on about half of the property; and when Mr. 
Hogue was called by the Church of the Ascension, Baltimore, the 
vestry of this parish paid off the mortgage. 

The other important advance made at the time of Mr. 
Hogue's coming was the great improvement in the financial 
status of the Rector. After 1906, chiefly through the efforts of 
the Rev. F. M. Osborne, who headed a committee appointed by 



*On September 15, 1909, Mr. Josephus Daniels of Raleigh was made 
chairman of a committee of the Board of Trustees to take in charge the pro- 
viding of funds for the purchase of the Hall property. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 53 

the Convention, the salary of the Rector was largely supple- 
mented by contributions from the parents of students. Interest- 
ing himself actively in the matter in order to assist Mr. Osborne, 
who was encountering difficulties in raising funds from the 
parents of students, the writer addressed the Convention in 
Raleigh, 1909, urging the justice and propriety of placing the 
Rector, as to salary, on the plane of the University professor. 
On September 15, 1909, the salary of the Rector was locally in- 
creased from $500.00 to $600.00; the two dioceses having 
agreed to raise $600.00 each, and the Missionary District of 
Asheville $200.00 — making the total salary of the Rector 
$2000.00. On October 18, 1909, at a meeting in Chapel Hill pre- 
sided over by the Rev. F. M. Osborne, the writer was designated 
to receive and disburse the Rector's salary on the new footing. 

Mr. Hogue frequently preached in the country, to gather- 
ings of people of various denominations; and numbered some of 
his best friends among the farmers and their families. He was 
• — and long remained — passionately fond of hunting; and one 
of the faculty once remarked: "Wherever two or three farmers 
are gathered together, there Hogue is found in the midst of them 
■ — in order to get an invitation to hunt on their land." 

Mr. Hogue once told me that on a Monday morning he met 
one of his farmer friends, after having preached in a Baptist 
Chapel the night preceding. After a cordial greeting, the 
farmer blurted out: "Our people want you to come out and 
preach to them again. You sholy did capsize 'em last night." 
As it was a Baptist congregation, Mr. Hogue concluded that the 
experience of being "capsized" was not disagreeable to them. 

In September, 1911, the Rev. Homer Worthington Starr, 
formerly rector of Christ Church, Winnetka (Chicago), Illinois, 
began his Rectorship here. On October 11, 1911, Mr. Starr 
began energetically upon his duties, and outlined a plan for the 
erection of a new rectory building; and a parish house, on the 
present church lot, at the back of the church. A. H. Patterson 
and Archibald Henderson were elected by the vestry to act with 
the rector to arrange for plans for the proposed building. Some- 
what later, a committee headed by Joseph Hyde Pratt was ap- 
pointed to raise funds and select an architect to design the new 
rectory and parish house, as well as to make extensive changes in 
and repairs of the church building. The services of Mr. Hobart 



54 STORY AND PAGEANT 

B. Upjohn, the distinguished church architect of New York, were 
secured. The old rectory and a considerable portion of the lot 
were sold; and the new rectory was erected upon the east- 
ern portion of the lot, on Rosemary Street. By the 
spontaneous action of the people of the parish, the vestry was pe- 
titioned to make the proposed parish house a memorial to Dr. 
and Mrs. Kemp P. Battle; and this step was unanimously taken 
by the vestry on January 30, 1913. On being notified of the 
action of the parish, Dr. Battle wrote to the parish committee 
as follows: 

Mrs. Battle and I are exceedingly gratified at the action 
of the rector, the vestry and other parishioners of our Church. 
It is impossible for us to decline the honor. For me to have 
my name associated with the parish of which I have been 
virtually a member for sixty-nine years, during forty-seven 
an active member, fills the measure of my ambitions. 
An A.B. of Harvard, an A.M. of the University of the South, 
Mr. Starr was scholarly in his tastes, business-like in procedure, 
vigorous and incisive in expression. Often brusque in manner 
and thereby unconsciously ruffling sensibilities, he nevertheless 
invigorated and dominated the entire Parish. By frequent 
Parish Meetings for free public discussion of church questions, 
by his well-attended Bible classes, by personal leadership of the 
Boy Scouts, he made important contributions to the intellectual, 
social and moral life of the community. He crowned his labors 
here, in securing a new rectory, a Parish House, and greatly im- 
proved church building, by the introduction of a vested choir. 

As an illustration of Mr. Starr's ambition and energy, he 
succeeded, although loaded with a heavy burden of parochial 
duties, in taking his Doctor of Philosophy degree at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, while in residence here. In speaking of 
his examination for the doctorate, held by certain members of the 
faculty, he once remarked to me: "I shall never forget with what 
skill they seemed to avoid every phase of the subject about 
which they thought I already had any knowledge whatever, and 
devoted themselves with meticulous precision to exactly those 
aspects of it concerning which I knew nothing at all!" Concern- 
ing the vestry during his rectorship here, he once wrote me as 
follows: "Surely there are few vestries which could compare with 
that at Chapel Hill in character and intelligence. Our meetings 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 55 

were uniformly marked by courtesy and harmony; and I am 
under the impression that every issue raised was, after frank dis- 
cussion, finally settled by unanimous vote. I am sure that no 
meeting ended without having the rector and the vestry in full 
accord; and for this patience and forbearance, I am to this day 
duly grateful." 

When Mr. Starr was called to the Church of the Holy Com- 
munion in Charleston, South Carolina, he was succeeded, on 
March 1, 1917, by the Rev. R. Maynard Marshall, a native of 
Charleston, South Carolina. During his rectorship, our campus 
was a Campus Martius; and entering the infantry then training 
at the University, Mr. Marshall came into close and friendly rela- 
tions with the students. He was assiduous in his parochial 
duties, especially attentive to the sick; and I recall that during 
the illness of his wife, he cooked three meals a day for weeks on 
end. A man of fine presence and very spiritual face, he read the 
Service with rare beauty of expression. His connection with the 
parish as rector was severed in 1920. 

On October 24, 1920, the vestry called the Rev. Alfred S. 
Lawrence, from All Saints' Church, Concord, North Carolina, to 
the Rectorship vacated by Mr. Marshall. The new Rector as- 
sumed his duties here the first part of 1921. At a vestry meeting 
on April 10, 1921, Bishop Cheshire traversed the situation with 
reference to extended repairs and improvements of the church 
property, and stated that certain influential members of the 
Diocese were deeply interested in the building up of this Parish. 
At a vestry meeting on April 13, the Rector and Archibald 
Henderson, A. H. Patterson and G. K. G. Henry were consti- 
tuted a committee to prepare a statement of proposed repairs of, 
and improvements in, the church buildings. After consultation 
with Mr. Hobart Upjohn, the architect, the committee reported 
at the Diocesan Convention in Durham that $70,000.00 was the 
preliminary estimate for the needed work. On July 6, 1922, the 
vestry passed resolutions of thanks to Mr. William A. Erwin of 
Durham for the gift of $50,000.00 for the construction of an addi- 
tion to the existing buildings of the Chapel of the Cross, provided 
the sum of $25,000.00 be raised from other sources to make cer- 
tain necessary repairs and additions to the present plant. The 
following statement was recorded in the vestry minutes of that 
date: 



56 STORY AND PAGEANT 

The donor of the splendid gift which will render possible 

the fulfilment of the Bishop's vision of "a great and beautiful 

Church, Parish House and all needed appointments, at 

Chapel Hill" is a loyal and devoted Churchman who has 

evidenced many times in the past, both by gifts and by 

personal service, his interest in the work of this Parish, and 

his conviction that the University is the most strategic 

point for the training of young men and women in this State. 

The decision was to build another church on the lot east of 

the present building, and to retain the name: The Chapel of the 

Cross. At the same vestry meeting (July 6, 1922), the following 

action was taken by the rectory: 

Mr. Erwin desire that the new church shall be a 
memorial to his grandfather, William Rainey Holt, a gradu- 
ate of the University of the class of 1817. We hereby put 
on record our appreciation ol the eminent propriety of 
associating the name of Dr. Holt with the new church. He 
was a man of sterling personal character, a loyal and promi- 
nent Churchman, and a far-sighted pioneer in developing 
the state's resources, especially along agricultural lines. 
The choice of his name is an exceedingly happy one, and we 
take pleasure in noting that again the name of Holt is to be 
so intimately connected with our work here, in which the 
Holt Fund, recently established by Mr. Lawrence Holt, a 
nephew of Dr. (W. R.) Holt, has been of such tremendous 
assistance to us. * 

The Trust Fund for the support of the Church work at the 
University, established by Mr. Lawrence S. Holt in 1921, fur- 
nishes the sum of $900.00 annually. According to the plans of 
the architect, a cloister was designed to connect the old church 
with the new; and this constitutes a beautiful feature of the 
entire church structure. On April 2, 1925, the vestry voted to 
make this cloister a memorial to the late Rev. W. H. Meade, 
D.D., Rector of this Parish (1898-1908), accepting a gift of 
$500.00 from Mr. William Meade Prince to be applied to the 
cost of this memorial. 



*Additional land on each side of the old church lot was required for the 
new church building and greatly enlarged material plant. A narrow strip of 
land, west of the church lot, belonging to the late Mrs. Algernon S. Barbee, 
and a wide strip of land, east of the church lot, the property of the University 
of North Carolina, were purchased by Mr. Erwin. 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CROSS 57 

The generosity of Mr. Erwin was further demonstrated by a 
great increase in his original gift in order to carry out the plans in 
accordance with bis desires. 

During the devoted and efficient incumbency of the Rev. 
Mr. Lawrence, the present rector, the growth of the church has 
been conspicuous. During the past decade, (1915-1925), the 
number of Episcopal students has trebled; and from 1921, when 
Mr. Lawrence became rector here, until 1925 the number of 
resident communicants has almost doubled. The fund for com- 
pleting the parish house was liberally contributed to by John H. 
Cutler of Charlotte; and the furnishings for this building were 
contributed by the women of the parish. Various additions to 
the material plant and improvements in church grounds and 
rectory have been made during Mr. Lawrence's rectorship. 
Among the memorials in the new Church building are: 

Pulpit. In memory of Dr. Aldert and Dr. Bennet Smedes. 

Given by Mrs. Erwin and her sister. 
Altar and Canopy. In memory of Rufus Lenoir Patterson, 

Class of 1851. Given by Rufus Lenoir Patterson, Class 

of 1893, and his grandson, Rufus Lenoir Patterson, III. 
Bishop's Chair. Given by Mr. Erwin in honor of Bishop 

Cheshire. 
Lectern. In memory of John Manning and his wife, Louisa 

J. Hall, given by their children. 
There are also many other memorials. 

On February 27, 1924, the vestry voted to invite the Dioce- 
san Convention to meet in Chapel Hill in May, 1925, in connec- 
tion with the consecration of the new church. The writer, as 
historian of the Parish, was requested to deliver a memorial 
address on that occasion, giving a history of the Episcopal Church 
in Chapel Hill. The Diocesan Convention met here on May 14, 
1925, and in the presence of a great gathering of notables, the 
beautiful group of church buildings was consecrated. The his- 
torical address was delivered by the writer in the new Chapel of 
the Cross on the evening of May 24, 1925; and furnished the 
nucleus for the greatly expanded history embodied in the present 
monograph. 





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